Detailed Bibliography of Dorothy Richardson

Works on Richardson

3.1 Books
3.2 Articles in Books and Periodicals
3.2.1 Articles in Books and Periodicals 1915-1945
3.2.2 Articles in Books and Periodicals 1946-1965
3.2.3 Articles in Books and Periodicals 1965-1993
3.2.4 Articles in Books and Periodicals since 1993
3.3. Reprints of Books and Articles
3.4 Unpublished Research
3.5. Untranslated Foreign Language Books and Articles
3.6. Books and Articles in which DMR is mentioned

3.1 Books

Powys, John C. Dorothy M. Richardson. London: Joiner & Steele, 1931.
Compares DMR's heroine to Faust and Hamlet in her "female quest for the essence of human experience," and DMR herself is likened to Dostoyevski as "original philosopher and artist." [Despite these extreme analogies] points out [perceptively] that DMR refused to be bound by any systems of thought; that there would be no "neat denouement" to her novel, no "spiritual formula" to round out the whole of the work; and that DMR was trying to express fundamental differences between man and woman in their apprehension of life. Notes also her achievement in conveying the qualities of place, and her linguistic gifts. [Although often flamboyantly "appreciative," keenly critical as well.]

Eagleson, Harvey. Pedestal for Statue: The Novels of Dorothy M. Richardson. Sewanee, Tenn.: The University Press, 1934.

Morgan, Louise. Dorothy Richardson. London: W. Jackson, 1939.

Blake, Caesar R. Dorothy M. Richardson. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1960.
A full-length study of Pilgrimage as a mystical novel. Blake does not claim that Pilgrimage is "an exercise in philosophical disquisition." He merely offers a reading in the framework of the "Mystic Way," a reading which he feels can supply DMR's work with a unity and theme that it has seemed to lack. He finds evidence of "conversion" in Oberland. "purification" in Dawn's Left Hand, and "illumination" in Dimple Hill. [In the last volume, however, when "illumination" is said to occur, the heroine is not yet on the Quaker farm.] Blake's speculative method often entails a noting of correspondences in language between studies of mysticism and the metaphorical descriptions of the heroine's thought and feelings.

Eastman, Richard M. A Guide to the Novel. San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1965.
Discusses Richardson, William Faulkner and Leo Tolstoy.

Gregory, Horace. Dorothy Richardson: An Adventure in Self-Discovery. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1967.
Biographical-critical study. "In purpose as well as style [DMR] was an innovator [for] she had no inhibitions about going against...the currents of her time." Pilgrimage, furthermore, "is closer to the art of autobiography than to fiction." Its personal roots lie deep in her own life, while its "literary roots are decisively English, and are to be found in the writings of Charlotte Bronte." One also cannot ignore the "practical and personal as well as literary" influence of H.G. Wells on DMR, but she "moved far beyond the example Wells provided (of "a conversational style," "the…use of a realistic eye and ear," "mimicry, and of the novel as a means of furthering advanced' ideas"), in that "she created a world of her won beyond the frontiers of the conventional novel, [and] in the writing of Pilgrimage, she contributed to the overthrow of fictional clichés." [Full of intelligent and wise commentary, but uneven in its control of the facts of DMR's life and of her novel and thus not completely reliable.]

Rosenberg, John D. Dorothy Richardson: The Genius They Forgot. A Critical Biography. London: Duckworth; New York: Knopf, 1973.
[A biography produced quickly for DMR's centenary year and based upon incomplete and sometimes unreliable sources that are insufficiently documented and therefore misleading, with the result that a good deal of distortion takes place as well as outright untruth.] "Is it [DMR's] realism - as opposed to the romanticism of Proust, Joyce and Virginia Woolf - that has caused Pilgrimage to be forgotten while those other works are still read? Did Dorothy Richardson's over-scrupulous honesty and intelligence deprive her work of an aura, a personality that would preserve it through time? Her honesty, luminous sometimes, is at other times almost painfully flat, undercutting the emotion that is also considerable in the work, but never allowed to get out off hand. The book, for all its lyrical moments, remains bare and spare and hard, never rich and rare. It is religiously plain, as befits a pilgrimage whose purposes, as well as aesthetic, are spiritual, so that our critical frames of reference falter a little. The book is a novel and also something more: a work with some quality like that of Bunyan, whom she greatly admired and from whom she took the title of her book."
Reviewed:
Lane, Margaret. "A new kind of novelist." Daily Telegraph [London] 17 May 1973:10.
Ratcliffe, Michael. "Unjustly forgotten." Times [London] 17 May 1973.
Wilson, Angus. "A self-made heroine." Observer [London] 17 May 1973.
Lehmann, John. "Mystic against the stream." Sunday Telegraph [London] 20 May 1973, "The Real Miriam." Times Literary Supplement [London] 15 June 1973: 660.
Edel, Leon. "Pilgrim's Way." New Statesman [London] 6 July 1973: 20, 22.
Stanford, Derek. "A forgotten pioneer of the modern novel." Birmingham Post 7 July 1973.
Cushman, Keith. Library Journal Aug. 1973: 2301.
Lewis, Naomi. "Forgotten Pilgrimage." Listener [London] 23 Aug. 1973: 255-256.
Craig, Patricia. "Dorothy Richardson - 'the damned egotistical self." Books and Bookmen Sept. 1973: 43-45.
Bell, Millicent. "The Single Self." New Republic 20 Oct. 1973: 23-27.
"General." New Yorker 14 Jan. 1974: 98.
"Rosenberg, John. Dorothy Richardson." Choice Feb. 1974: 1869.

Kaplan, Sydney Janet. Feminine Consciousness in the Modem British Novel. Urbana & London: University of Illinois Press, 1975.

Staley, Thomas F. Dorothy Richardson. Boston: Twayne, 1976.

Fromm, Gloria G. Dorothy Richardson: A Biography. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977.
Reviewed: Miller, Jane. "In the Element of Language." Times Literary Supplement 14 (July 1978): 788.

Steinberg, Erwin R., ed. The Stream-of-Consciousness Technique in the Modern Novel. New York & London: Kennikat Press, 1979.
A collection of original writings on stream-of-consciousness techniques, placing DMR alongside Woolf, Proust and Joyce.

Showalter, Elaine. A Literature of Their Own: British Women Novelists from Bronte to Lessing. 1977. Rev. ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Hanscombe, Gillian E. The Art of Life: Dorothy Richardson and the Development of Feminist Consciousness. London: Owen, 1982; Athens: Ohio University Press, 1983.
Reviewed:
Warr, T. The Times Literary Supplement 4169 (1983): 176.
McLaurin, A. Powys Review. Vol.4, no.13, (1983): 81-83.
Fromm, G.G. English Literature in Transition 1880-1920. Vol.27, no.2, (1984): 158-161.
Boumelha, P. Review of English Studies. Vol.35, no. 140, (1984): 577-578.

Labovitz, Esther Kleinbord. The Myth of the Heroine: The Female Bildungsroman in the Twentieth Century 1986. 2nd ed. New York: Peter Lang, 1988.
Discusses Doris Lessing, Dorothy Richardson, Christa Wolf and Simone de Beauvoir.

Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. 3 vols. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1988-1994.

Chauhan, H.G.S. Stream of Consciousness and Beyond in the Novels of Dorothy M. Richardson. New Delhi: Harman Publishing House, 1990.

Radford, Jean. Dorothy Richardson. Key Women Writers Series. New York & London: Harvester Wheatsheaf; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

Watts, Carol. Dorothy Richardson. Writers and their Work Series. Plymouth: Northcote in association with The British Council, 1995.

Scott, Bonnie Kime. Refiguring Modernism. 2 vols. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1995.

Fouli, Janet. Structure and Identity: the Creative Imagination in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage. Faculté des Lettres de la Manouba, Tunis, 1995.

Thomson, George, ed. A Reader's Guide to Dorothy Richardson's "Pilgrimage". Fwd. by Kristin Bluemel. Greensboro, NC: ELT Press, 1996.
Publisher's blurb: "A Reader's Guide [provides] a detailed account of the time scheme of the narrative, and a precise chronology of events keyed to the novels by page number for easy reference. Relationships among the principal persons of the story are followed throughout, and all the characters are placed in context in an alphabetically arranged descriptive directory. The book concludes with a select annotated secondary bibliography."

Gevirtz, Susan. Narrative's Journey: The Fiction and Film Writing of Dorothy Richardson. New York: Peter Lang, 1996.

Gillies, Mary Ann. Henri Bergson and British Modernism. Montreal & Philadelphia: Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1996.
Has a chapter on Richardson.

Bluemel, Kristin. Experimenting on the Borders of Modernism: Dorothy Richardson's "Pilgrimage". Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1997.

Bloom, Harold, ed. British Women Fiction Writers. 1900-1960. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 1997.
Has a chapter on Richardson.

Labovitz, Esther. The Female 'Bildungsroman' in the Twentieth Century: A Comparative Study: Dorothy Richardson. Simone de Beauvoir. Doris Lessing. Christa Wolf. 1984. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1998.

Thomson, George H. Notes on 'Pilgrimage': Dorothy Richardson Annotated. Greensboro, N.C.: ELT Press, 1999.
Publisher's blurb: "Notes on 'Pilgrimage', by identifying historical persons, events, ideas, quotations and writings that underpin Richardson's story, illuminates the factual details and enriches understanding of the narrative. A translation of all foreign words and phrases, a record of textual misprints and a thorough index add to the value of the book.".

Bronfen, Elisabeth. Dorothy Richardson's Art of Memory: Space. Memory. Text. Trans. Victoria Appelbe. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999.
Reviewed by Finn, Howard. Women: A Cultural Review , Vol.11: 1/2, (London: Routledge, 2000), pp.175-178

Parsons, Deborah L. Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the City and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Stamm, David. A Pathway to Reality: Visual and Aural Concepts in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage. Marburg: Francke Verlag, 2000.

Thomson, George H. with Thomson, Dorothy F. The Editions of Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage: A Comparison of Texts (ELT Press, 2001) an ebook designed and edited by Kelly Cunningham.

Winning, Joanne. The Pilgrimage of Dorothy Richardson. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000. Reviewed by Finn, Howard. Women: A Cultural Review , Vol.13: 2 (London: Routledge, 2002), pp.233-236.

Tucker, Eva. ....the enchanted guest of spring and summer - Dorothy Richardson, 1873-1957: A Reassessment of her Work. Hypatia Press, 2003.

McCracken, Scott. Masculinities, Modernist Fiction, and the Urban Public Sphere. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007.

Llantada Díaz, María Francisca. Form and Meaning in Dorothy M. Richardson's Pilgrimage. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2007. pp.220.

Parsons, Deborah. Theorists of the modernist novel : James Joyce, Dorothy Richardson, Virginia Woolf (Abingdon: Routledge, 2007).

Fest, Kerstin. And All Women mere Players: Performance and Identity in Dorothy Richardson, Jean Rhys and Radclyffe Hall (Wien: Braumüller, 2009), pp.298.

Drewery, Clare. Modernist Short Fiction by Women: The Liminal in Katherine Mansfield, Dorothy Richardson, May Sinclair and Virginia Woolf (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011).

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3.2. Articles in Books and Periodicals

3.2.1 Articles in Books and Periodicals 1915-1945

Beresford, J.D. "Introduction." Pointed Roofs. London: Duckworth, 1915: v-viii.
The novel represents "a new attitude towards fiction," and DMR is "the first novelist who has taken the final plunge... become a very part of the human element she has described."

Wells, H.G. "Introduction." Nocturne by Frank Swinnerton. New York: Doran, 1917: xi.

Sinclair, May. 'The Novels of Dorothy Richardson." The Egoist, 5, 4 (April 1918): 57-59.
Defines the method of Pilgrimage and the meaning for fiction of DMR's single and rigorously limited device of a point of view. Claims that the subject of the novel is Miriam's stream of consciousness, and that this is the important subject of the modern novel. Commenting on Beresford's remark in his introduction to Pointed Roofs that DMR had taken a headlong plunge, notes how neat and quiet was her plunge; indeed "even admirers of her performance might remain unaware of what it is precisely that she has done. She has disappeared while they were still waiting for the splash."

Walpole, Hugh. "London's Latest Literary Spectacles. A London Letter from Hugh Walpole." Sun, 86 (23 Mar. 1919): 9.
The Tunnel is an example of the "new form of expression" in literature, without "explanations by the author" and "apparently no arrangement, no selection, no emphasis," but "simply...truth at its nakedest." Claims that The Tunnel is a "grandchild of The Golden Bowl."

Williams, William Carlos. "Four Foreigners." Little Review, 6 (Sept. 1919): 36-39.
Discusses the work of Richard Aldington and D.H. Lawrence (as represented in the July issue of Poetry) and of Joyce and DMR (as represented in the current Little Review). Thinks that the first pair "offer...an indecent exposure, [whereas] the second two have managed to endow their work with the bloom of excellence."

Rodker, John. "Dorothy Richardson." Little Review, 6 (Sept. 1919): 40-41.

George, W.L. "A Painter's Literature." English Review, 30 (Mar. 1920): 223-234.
Divides the novelists of the day into three classes, according to period: "Neo-Victorians" (Wells, Galsworthy, Bennett, and Conrad) who began to write in the early 1890's and retained the element of plot; "Edwardians" (Beresford, Lawrence, Hugh Walpole, Swinnerton, Forster) who began to write in or about the year 1906; "Neo-Georgians" (Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, Virginia Woolf, DMR, and May Sinclair). It was the Neo-Georgians who transformed the novel, and most of them "can be described as painters rather than as writers" because they "attempt to avoid expressing ideas." Thus, the modern novel is becoming a painter's literature." Unfortunate that DMR does not select details but rather "gives herself over to all and any details."

Aldington, Richard. "The Approach to M. Marcel Proust." Dial, 69 (Oct. 1920): 341-346.
Mentions DMR (as well as Joyce and May Sinclair) as "merely" an "impressionist" whose work lacks the "significance" of the French novelist's in spite of her "almost fabulous virtuosity."

Mais, S.P.B. "Dorothy Richardson." Books and Their Writers. London: Richards, 1920: 75-86.
Emphasises DMR's break with tradition, and the difficulties in reading Pilgrimage not only because its author eschews analysis, explanation, and narrative but also because she "denies passion." [The prediction of literature cited as her heroine's - that in books of the future sex would be altogether eliminated - had been made by someone else, Hypo Wilson.]

Johnson, R. Brimley. "Dorothy Richardson." Some Contemporary Novelists (Women), London: Leonard Parsons, 1920: 133-146.
DMR's aim is to reproduce "life" with a "completeness" that she "approaches...more nearly than any other writer [does]"; thus many of her "limitations" are those of life itself.

Roberts, R. Ellis. 'Women Novelists." Bookman [London], 59 (Feb. 1921): 202.
Review of R. Brimley Johnson's Some Contemporary Novelists (Women). "Confesses" that he does not "understand Miss Richardson's method - which seems equally composed of Sterne, the creed of the Vortex, and Freud. And Mr. Brimley Johnson does not make it clearer..."

Cross, Wilbur. "Some Novels of 1920." Yale Review, 10 (Jan. 1921): 396-411.
Speaks of the present "flourishing group of novelists, mainly women, who aim to correlate fact with fiction by giving every detail in the life of a character, one incident or emotion being as important as another. Thus Miss Dorothy Richardson has reached in Interim the fifth novel depicting a girl's career, and the end is not yet [in sight]."

Follett, Wilson. "Foreword." Deadlock. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1921: v-xii.
DMR is unconcerned with the "concept of herself as a contemporary and future influence," and possesses "two great gifts of a brilliant subtlety and a nervous vitality." Deadlock is "the best thing she has done" in performing the task she has set herself: "to make words embody consciousness itself..."

Murry, John Middleton. "The Break-Up of the Novel." Yale Review, 12 (Oct. 1922): 288-304.
Considers the present, hopefully, as a "period of transition" from the "extreme and deliberate subjectivism" (which is so often incomprehensible) of Proust, Joyce, and DMR.

Walpole, Hugh. "Realism and the New English Novel." Vanity Fair [New York], 20 (Mar. 1923): 34,112.
Disagrees with those critics who believe that the novels of DMR, Joyce, and Proust are "manifestations of something perfectly new and strange." Indeed, they "are not novels at all; they are autobiography."

Lawrence, D.H. "Surgery for the Novel - Or a Bomb?" Literary Digest International Book Review [New York], 1 (Apr. 1923): 5-6, 63.
Insists that the "serious novel," as exemplified by the work of Joyce, DMR, and Proust, is both "senile" and "precocious" in its absorbed and childish "self-consciousness."

Collins, Joseph. "Dorothy Richardson and her Censor." The Doctor Looks at Literature. New York: Doran, 1923: 96-115.
A description both of DMR's "subjective consciousness" as the heroine of Pilgrimage and her '"unconscious mind' which has been got by the 'censor'." Pilgrimage is the expression of a "starved libido." [Fanciful and idiosyncratic.]

Wadsworth, P. Beaumont, "A Leader of Modern Realists: Dorothy Richardson a Novelist Who Tells her Own Story" Boston Evening Transcript (1923).
'Perhaps the most significant event in modern literature is the coincidental emergence of two writers who, while working independently of each other, were both engaged in breaking new ground in a similar manner, James Joyce and Miss Dorothy Richardson. The French writer, Marcel Proust, threatened to become a third, but narrowly escaped by using the orthodox narrative method and writing "about consciousness" instead of "through consciousness" as the other two had done.'

Hyde, Lawrence. 'The Work of Dorothy Richardson." Adelphi, 2 (Nov. 1924): 508-517.
Agrees with the early readers of Pointed Roofs that it was a "brilliant" book, but believes that DMR wrote it "in the attempt to express some quite special spiritual attitude to life, and almost without being interested in the fact herself, incidentally fulfilled all the conditions for the manufacture of a 'brilliant' novel." Pilgrimage as a whole has no form, is a medley of unconnected impressions of trivia, and the episodes succeed one another like those in "cinematograph film with a tenuous plot." Fails to find the proportionate significance of any one thing or person over the rest. [Selects for quotation lines which in context disprove his point. For example, he cites - as a "loose end" - a passage in which the heroine ponders the nature of particular Jewish children she had met in the past. The general subject takes its place, clearly, in a dominant pattern of Miriam's experience.]

McAlmon, Robert. Letter to the "Editor of the Little Review." Little Review, 10 (Autumn 1924- Winter 1925): 48.
Points out to Margaret Anderson the existence of a book entitled The Book of Blanche by a Dorothy Richardson who is not the author of Pilgrimage, and who appears to be doing nothing "to make the public aware of a difference in identity." Suggests that Miss Anderson, having published DMR, "might feel moved to protest."

Morgan, Louise. "How Writers Work: Dorothy Richardson." Everyman, 22 Oct .1931: 395-396, 400.
An account of the first interview DMR permitted, containing her story of how Pointed Roofs was written and details about her life in Cornwall. Reports that DMR considered "winter solitude and inaccessibility" to be the "ideal conditions" for work, those that would result in the necessary "collaboration between the conscious and the unconscious."

"Dilly Tante Observes." Wilson Bulletin for Librarians, 6 (Dec. 1931): 284-285.
Speaks of DMR in answer to a letter from a Canadian librarian who wondered why her "favorite writer" had been omitted from Living Authors. One reason given in reply is that DMR's writing is "not memorable for narrative brilliance or for metaphysical profundity," but "it will endure, nevertheless... because it happens to be, by design, the perfect solvent of a personality."

Beach, Joseph Warren. "Imagism: Dorothy Richardson." The Twentieth Century Novel: Studies in Technique. New York: Appleton Century Crofts, 1932: 385-400.
DMR "part and parcel of the general impressionist movement in art"; concentrates on the first three volumes of Pilgrimage "which are much the most charming and interesting." In general, however, the novel has no "point," and DMR's manner is "feminine" and "evasive."

Edgar, Pelham. "Stream of Consciousness: Dorothy Richardson, Virginia Woolf." The Art of the Novel. New York: Macmillan, 1933: 320-328.
Notes as "realistic impressionism" the sharp and effective dialogue of DMR and her "revelations of the London of the nineties"; characterises Pilgrimage as "a work of consecutive and developing power."

Kunitz, Stanley J. ed. Authors Today and Yesterday. New York: H. Wilson, 1933: 562-564.
Following an autobiographical sketch in which DMR confines herself primarily to a discussion of the term "stream of consciousness," quotes from various reviewers and critics, and points out that "although [Pilgrimage is narrated] in the third person, the illusion is of a complete immersion in the first person singular."

Mackenzie, Compton. Literature in My Time. London: Rich & Cowan, 1933: 216, 220; index.
Pilgrimage is "one of the experiments which had to be made but the result of which is unsatisfactory." The novel seems to exemplify that "surrender to the uneasy drift" which is a "characteristic of our time."

Savage, Henry. The Receding Shore. London: Grayson & Grayson, 1933: 189, 221; index.
Anecdotal, somewhat apocryphal remarks by an "unconventional" friend of DMR and her husband.

Eagleson, Harvey. "Pedestal for Status: The Novels of Dorothy M. Richardson." Sewanee Review, 42 (Jan-Mar 1934): 42-53.
Asks whether Pilgrimage is not "rather a case book than a novel," containing "the materials of fiction rather than fiction itself," and believes that after the first volume, only "detail" was added, but no "movement, progression," not even "a new picture." Thus, Pilgrimage is only a vast beginning," "the monumental pedestal for a statue of heroic size, but the statue is missing." [Careless reading, inaccurately stating, for example, that the heroine's mother died "of cancer."]

Wells, H.G. Experiment in Autobiography. 2 vols. London: Gollancz & Cresset Press; New York: Macmillan, 1934: 557; index.
Identifies himself and his wife as characters in DMR's "very curious essay in autobiography."

Swinnerton, Frank. The Georgian Scene: A Literary Panorama. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1934; The Georgian Literary Scene: A Panorama. London: Heinemann, 1935: 384-87; index.
Assigns to Pilgrimage "a place entirely its own" in the history of modern novels," but asks whether the central character has been "created" or whether she emerges by the "accident of accumulated indications," and if indeed there is any composition or point at all.

Fitzgerald, Ellen. "Dorothy M. Richardson." Life and Letters To-Day, 17 (Winter 1937): 37-39.
Offers general and appreciative remarks about the series, its place in the development of the English novel, and the way in which it serves as a "recall...to the 90's, and even earlier, of the nineteenth century." Characterises Pilgrimage as a "strident book subdued by art."

McAlmon, Robert. Being Geniuses Together. An Autobiography. London: Secker & Warburg, 1938: 120-122, 220-222.
Conversationally describes DMR, her husband, and her writing as he knew them in the 1920s. [DMR labelled a distortion the way in which he reported her manner towards her husband.]

Church, Richard. 'The Poet and the Novel." Fortnightly Review, 144 (Nov. 1938): 593-604.
After preparatory theorising, tries to demonstrate that "two of the longest prose-fictions written during this century," Proust's "prose-epic," and DMR's "twelve-volume life-work," are "based upon the same form" as a seven-line poem by Allingham.

Gregory, Horace. "Dorothy Richardson Reviewed." Life and Letters To-Day, 21 (Mar. 1939): 36-45.
The novel is a "Comedie Humaine of English-speaking Europe," written out of the tradition of realism in a prose of "classical excellence." DMR supreme in the creation of character and possessed of the "great merit" of "sanity," which is "one of her qualities that has contributed so brilliantly to the standard she has set for moral criticism of her place and time."

Maisel, E.M. "Dorothy M. Richardson's Pilgrimage." Canadian Forum, 19 (June 1939): 89-92.
Pilgrimage is "one of the most stunning achievements of our time"; discusses it as a mystic novel on the basis of the following evidence: her earlier book, The Quakers Past and Present; her opposition to the talking picture as destructive of that "mental and physical silence" which was needed to "transcend the habits of sense"; her preoccupation in Pilgrimage with the "experience of things" which the mystic considered important; the staircase imagery in her novel that suggested a mystical pathway. [Tenuous case. Similar arguments could be advanced for the poetic quality of Pilgrimage, and so far as the staircase imagery goes, Miriam herself said that in a journey up or down stairs, "Always an amazing adventure," it did not matter - and she often temporarily forgot - where she was going.]

Kunitz, Stanley J. and Howard Haycraft, ed. Twentieth Century Authors,. New York: Wilson, 1942: 1169-1170.
Contains the autobiographical sketch printed in Authors Today and Yesterday, but a less flattering selection of comments by critics. [The photograph here is not of DMR but rather of her American namesake.]

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3.2.2 Articles in Books and Periodicals 1946-1965

Romilly, Giles. "Seasonal Ghosts." Observer, [London], 30 Dec. 1951: 6.
Notice of BBC reading of "Christmas Eve." Praises DMR's short story [published in 1920] "about an awkward German lady who sang 'Heilige Nacht' in front of some reticent English ladies" as "a perfect story in which every false note rang true."

Greene, Graham. 'The Saratoga Trunk." The Lost Childhood and Other Essays,. New York: Viking, 1952: 84-86.
DMR's method is "ponderous" and "unwitty," "undetached" and "unironic," although there are in the novels "passages of admirable description" and "characters do sometimes emerge clearly from the stream of consciousness." [The Saratoga trunk refers to the heroine's travelling appendage which had disappeared from Pilgrimage by the fourth volume.]

Macmillan, William J. The Reluctant Healer. A Remarkable Autobiography,. New York: Crowell, 1952: 62-64.
Remembers visits with DMR and her husband in St. John's Wood and in Cornwall.

'The Novel in Disintegration." Times Literary Supplement,. Special Autumn Number. 28 Aug. 1953: xii.
The "immediate cause of a disintegrating state of affairs to-day" is the attempt on the part of novelists to "make the novel do more than it can." Looks back to the beginnings of twentieth-century fiction to find DMR's novel one of several "pioneering experiments, themselves unsatisfying as fiction, which for a time proved a powerfully liberating and creative example and are now spent"; the method of Pilgrimage is a "dead end."

Woolf, Virginia. A Writer's Diary,. Ed. Leonard Woolf. London: Hogarth Press, 1953: 23; index.
Entry for Monday 26th January 1920: "I suppose the danger [present in the new form of novel she is trying to work out] is the damned egotistical self; which ruins Joyce and Richardson to my mind: is one pliant and rich enough to provide a wall for the book from oneself without its becoming, as in Joyce and Richardson, narrowing and restricting?"

Kelly, Robert Glynn. 'The Strange Philosophy of Dorothy M. Richardson." Pacific Spectator, 8 (Winter 1954): 76-82.
Glikin: Offers the following "creed" of DMR: first, "experience consists of a series of independent, equal fragments"; second, "literature which imposes upon life meaningful patterns is false"; third, "man's greatest enemy is his reason." Because these are her beliefs, Pilgrimage must be fragmentary; it has "no structure whatsoever," "neither organisation nor selection," and it proclaims that only the "feminine mind...irrational, haphazard, sensitive, and intuitive..." can find "the truth." [Strangely hostile as well as inaccurate in stating, first, that there are no physical details in the novel, and second, that "at the end of the novel (Dimple Hill, which takes place in Sussex) Miriam comes to a small Quaker sect in Switzerland."]

Friedman, Melvin. "Dorothy Richardson and Virginia Woolf: Stream of Consciousness in England." Stream of Consciousness: A Study in Literary Method. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1955: 178-187.
Pilgrimage has scarcely any plot, "no subject other than the inconstancy of Miriam Henderson's mind," no "objective detail," no "significant artistic pattern." Its early volumes bear the stamp of the Imagist movement, and the later ones the influence of Proust. [Friedman sees the ending of Honeycomb (the suicide of the heroine's mother) as a scene in which the heroine is preparing to go to sleep in her mother's room. A critical review of Friedman also dismissed Richardson as part of 'the history of literature: 'The Terrible Flood', The Times Literary Supplement, 27 June, 1956]

Edel, Leon. "Novelists of Influence VII: Dorothy Richardson Feminine Realist." Times Educational Supplement [London], 1 June 1956: 743.
Summarises the decline to critical obscurity of Pilgrimage since its beginning 40 years before, and concludes that its "true difficulty...lies in its impenetrability" (stemming from the limited point of view of an adolescent girl), that "the successful reading of the book seem to depend in a considerable measure on the reader's sex." However, "if the challenge is met and the empathy achieved, Miss Richardson offers us, on certain pages, a remarkable emotional luminescence..." Notes that in Pointed Roofs. DMR "anticipated the moving-picture camera."

Bowen, Elizabeth. 'Truth and Fiction - II. People: The Creation of Character." Listener, 56 (1 Nov. 1956): 704-6.
In this second of three BBC talks on "the novelist's craft," discusses the ways - by analysis and by dialogue - of presenting and dramatising character. Quotes from The Tunnel to illustrate the "more recent and the more subtle kind of character analysis,...the stream of consciousness" - showing characters, "not through explanation, but through the thoughts which occurred to them and the sensations which they had."

Stanford, Derek. "Dorothy Richardson's Novels." Contemporary Review, 192 (August 1957): 86-89.
Clues to Miss Richardson's treatment of her world of lost values in Pilgrimage are Bergson's Creative Evolution and Joyce's Ulysses. Criticisms of Richardson are for formlessness, lack of perspective, and monotony.

Prescott, Joseph. "A Preliminary Checklist of the Periodical Publications of Dorothy M. Richardson." Studies in Honor of John Wilcox. Ed. Alva Dayle Wallace and W. O. Ross. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1958: 219-225.

Kumar, Shiv K. "Dorothy Richardson and Bergson's 'Mémoire par Excellence'." Notes and Queries, ns 6 (Jan. 1959): 14-19.
Classifies DMR as one of the "Bergsonian rememberers of the past, seekers after le temps perdu." but claims that she differs from both Bergson and Proust in not suggesting "any formal distinction between voluntary and involuntary memory." However, she resembles Proust in believing in "the power of an object, odour, or taste to recall a past experience."

Kumar, Shiv K. "Dorothy Richardson and the Dilemma of 'Being Versus Becoming'." Modern Language Notes, 74 (June 1959): 494-501.
Discusses DMR in relation to Bergson, and finds that she "parts company with [him] whenever she tried to locate the source of psychic states at 'some sure centre,' for according to Bergson the centre itself is involved in a process of ceaseless change and becoming." In relation to Joyce, Faulkner, and Virginia Woolf, affirms that DMR's work lacks "aesthetic design" but that in its attempt "to present in explicit terms some of the fundamental aesthetic and philosophical aspects of the stream of consciousness method," Pilgrimage is "peculiarly more significant than Ulysses. To the Lighthouse, or As I Lay Dying." Concerning the problem of "being versus becoming," says that DMR does "resolve this dilemma intuitively in favor of the latter." [Abstractly argued.]

Trickett, Rachel. 'The Living Dead - V: Dorothy Richardson." London Magazine, 6 (June 1959): 20-25.
DMR is a "genuinely original talent" and yet has "unexpected links with tradition, too." Likens her to Charlotte Bronte in her "intenseness, her lack of humour, her fervour and integrity." Classifies DMR as a "propagandist" who is fanatically devoted to "the woman's outlook" and also as a "passionate sentimentalist" despite her "authenticity and realism."

Brome, Vincent. "A Last Meeting with Dorothy Richardson." London Magazine, 6 (June 1959): 26-32.
Describes his visit of 1950 to the 77 year old DMR living in Cornwall. Finds her a powerful personality, with "insights of a very special kind" and "a logical brain of enormous range."

Tomkinson, Grace. "Dorothy M. Richardson, Pioneer." Dalhousie Review, 38 (Winter 1959): 465-471.
The position in literary history of Miss Richardson, "the first to use, intentionally and consistently, the 'stream of consciousness' technique," has not yet been adequately determined.

Kumar, Shiv K. "Dorothy Richardson and Bergson's Durée." The Indian Journal of English Studies, 1.1 1960: n.pag.

Kumar, Shiv K. "Dorothy Richardson." Bergson and the Stream of Consciousness Novel. London & Glasgow: Blackie, 1962; New York: New York University Press, 1963: 36-63.

Glikin [Fromm], Gloria. "Dorothy Richardson: The Personal Pilgrimage." PMLA, 78 (Dec. 1963): 586-600.
Biographical essay. Offers the first account of DMR's life, and on the basis of this new biographical information suggests the need for a reevaluation of Pilgrimage by means of thoroughly grounded critical approaches.

Glikin [Fromm], Gloria. 'Variations on a Method." James Joyce Quarterly, 2.1 (Fall 1964): 42-49.
A brief comparison of DMR's The Tunnel and Interim with Joyce's Ulysses, pointing out the simultaneous serialization of Interim and Ulysses in The Little Review and the resemblance of method in the three novels. Indicates, also, that DMR's method probably evolved independently.

Edel, Leon. "Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." The Modern Psychological Novel 1900-1950. New York: Lippincott, 1955; New York: Grove, 1960. Revd. & enl. New York: Universal Library, 1964:154-161.
Examines DMR along with Proust and Joyce as one of the seminal figures in the development of the stream of consciousness novel. The section on Pilgrimage itself contains for the most part a discussion of the problem - for the male - of reading Pointed Roofs, i.e. entering into the necessarily narrow mind of a young, eager, and innocent girl. Revd. ed. adds comments on autobiographical and documentary nature of Pilgrimage, and its Proustian organisation: its movement toward the act of writing the novel which is just coming to an end.

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3.2.3 Articles in Books and Periodicals 1965-1993

Glikin [Fromm], Gloria. "Checklist of Writings by Dorothy M. Richardson." English Literature in Transition 1880-1920, 8.1 (1965): 1-11.

Glikin [Fromm], Gloria. "Dorothy M. Richardson: An Annotated Bibliography of Writings about Her." English Literature in Transition 1880-1920, 8.1 (1965): 12-35.

Allen, Walter. "Introduction." Pilgrimage. London: J.M. Dent; New York: A.A. Knopf, 1967: 3-8.
"Pilgrimage shows us, uniquely, what it felt like to be a young woman, ardent, aspiring, fiercely independent, determined to live her own life in the profoundest sense, [during the period from the nineties to 1914]. It is not a small achievement."

Adam International Review. [Issue devoted to DMR and Proust]. 31. 310-12 (1967).
Editorial comments by Miron Grindea [not always entirely accurate], notes by Richard Church, Storm Jameson, Pamela Hansford Johnson, reminiscences and critical articles, and a previously unpublished piece by DMR entitled "Old Age."

Bryher. "D.R." Adam International Review, 31. 310-12 (1967): 22-23.
Personal appreciation. DMR "was writing of an actual struggle when the world for women was a prison, not a universe [so that Pilgrimage] is not only a great novel but...also the record of the fight so many of us had to make to come from being second-class citizens to recognition."

Odle, Rose Isserlis. "Dorothy and Alan." Adam International Review, 31. 310-312 (1967): 27-34.
Memoir of DMR and her husband, set in a biographical frame. [The birthplace of DMR as given is incorrect, but the first-hand descriptions are rich.]

Wadsworth, P. Beaumont. "My Friendship with D.R.." Adam International Review, 31. 310-312 (1967): 35-40.
Memoir of a thirty-five year friendship with DMR. [Valuable for the light it sheds on one of DMR's personal relationships.]

Glikin [Fromm], Gloria. 'The I and the 'She'." Adam International Review, 31. 310-312 (1967): 41-44.
Despite their different choices of narrative method (first and third person), DMR and Proust had similar aims as writers: to transform into art the raw material of their own personal lives; and to exercise control over the self-revelation they wove into their novels.

Gregory, Horace. "An Adventure in Self-Discovery." Adam International Review, 31. 310-312 (1967): 45-47.
A shortened version of the epilogue of Gregory's book.

Staley, Thomas. "A Strange Anachronism." Adam International Review, 31. 310-312 (1967): 48-50.
The neglect of Pilgrimage is unmerited. Each of the parts seems to be a carefully structured work of art in its own right; and the language of the novels "reflects the unclouded rhetoric of an imagist poem."

Glikin [Fromm], Gloria. "Letters to the Book Review Editor." Saturday Review, 9 Sept. 1967: 26.
Letter pointing out the mistaken photographs printed in the issue of 12 August 1967.

Glikin [Fromm], Gloria. "Letters to the Editor." New York Times Book Review, 17 Sept. 1967: 52.
Letter pointing out that the photograph supposedly of DMR in the issue of 27 August 1967 was of an American novelist of the same name whose picture had also been printed by the New York Times in 1928 accompanying a review of Oberland and had understandably distressed DMR then.

Odle, Rose. "Letters to the Editor." New York Times Book Review, 22 Oct. 1967: 48, 50.
Letter commenting on the errant photograph of DMR, her sister-in-law.

Wilson, Angus. "Sexual Revolution." Listener, 80 (10 Oct. 1968): 457-460.
Lecture on novelists' attitudes toward the sexes from the time of Samuel Richardson to the present. DMR's Miriam was "by no means the first of the heroines fighting the sex war in the English novel."

Glikin [Fromm], Gloria. 'Through the Novelist's Looking-Glass." Kenyon Review, 31.3 (Summer 1969): 297-319.
DMR is probably H.G. Wells's "most authoritative 'biographer' thus far," even though her portrait of him appears under the guise of fiction in Pilgrimage. He in turn constantly fictionalised himself, and to read his novels is to see the various shapes he assumed - all the images the mirror reflected when he looked into it - that have made it so difficult to reach the man behind them. With DMR's help, Wells's own novels and his autobiography can provide a glimpse of the "thematic self underlying the often contradictory images he projected - one "not entirely known to him but recurring with subtle variations throughout his novels: the timid endearing little man who suddenly exerts his will in a dual attempt to transform his life and reform the world."

Rose, Shirley. 'The Unmoving Center: Consciousness in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." Contemporary Literature, 10 (Summer 1969): 366-382.
Pilgrimage has a "philosophical cohesiveness" that is the result of DMR's "imaginative rendering" of the view which persists in all her writings - that the "source and repository of life" is "being," that here lies "immutable reality," apprehended by the synthesising capacity of the human consciousness." At the same time, she believed that with "our practical understanding" we see how "certain experiences" depend on, or "are consequent to," "chronological time through the interaction of physical and intellectual perception." Thus DMR's view is fundamentally different from Bergson's, for she held to "an unchanging reality" within the person rather than an evolutionary one.

Rose, Shirley. "Dorothy Richardson's Theory of Literature: The Writer as Pilgrim." Criticism, 12 (Winter 1970): 20-37.

Allentuck, Marcia. "Dorothy Richardson on William Blake and the Broadside: An Unrecorded Appraisal." Blake Studies, 3. 2 (Spring 1971): 195-196.
In a short article, 'The Status of Illustrative Art" in Adelphi (3 June, 1925), DMR showed that she could be a "discerning," stimulative art critic. In her concern to make legitimate quality book illustrators, she emphasised Blake's "cosmic extension of the coloured broadside," introducing a new and fruitful direction for Blake studies.

Kaplan, Sydney Janet. '"Featureless Freedom' or Ironic Submission: Dorothy Richardson and May Sinclair." College English, 32 (May 1971): 914-917.
Both May Sinclair and DMR preceded Virginia Woolf in their use of the stream of consciousness, and both sought to define feminine self-awareness through their main characters. But DMR's Miriam Henderson, unlike May Sinclair's Mary Olivier, is a "new woman," unrestricted by society. DMR, as an innovator, "turned the novel inward, and used the older prevailing beliefs about the feminine psyche as the basis for a new form of literature and a new method of character development in a period of social change." Rather than dealing with totalities, DMR looked at what she believed to be "the essence of the feminine consciousness," concrete perceptions and "particularities." DMR's character Miriam is uncertain of her role as a woman, embarrassed at her lack of femininity, and yet latently homosexual. She resents male arrogance and cold male reason, fears her attraction to females, and so is led to a religious commitment which offers a vague unity rather than personal commitments. This ultimate submission or femininity "becomes a femininity of mind which is strangely abstract and separated from its normal connection with the body. It is a lonely and asexual achievement of 'being.'" In addition, DMR must rely on words and sentences, "'masculine' devices"; "this creates a tension that is never resolved."

Rose, Shirley. "Dorothy Richardson Recalls Yeats." Eire-Ireland: A Journal of Irish Studies, 7.1 (1972): 96-102.

Rose, Shirley. "Dorothy Richardson: The First Hundred Years, a Retrospective View." Dalhousie Review, 53 (1973): 92-96.

Rose, Shirley. "Dorothy Richardson's Focus on Time." English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, 17. 3 (1974): 163-72.
In her novels and essays, DMR reconciles "two supposed contraries" among her beliefs - that there is an "unchanging centre of being" and that the self evolves painfully. Her "general view suggests that to the consciousness, these seemingly irreconcilable states are not contraries; that the synthesising activity of the consciousness absorbs through contemplation and the continuity of experience as well as its essence. To the consciousness all in one."

Fromm, Gloria G. 'The Misfortunes of Dorothy Richardson: A Review Essay." Modernist Studies: Literature and Culture 1920-1940, 1. 3 (1974-5): 59-64.

Fromm, Gloria G. "Dorothy M. Richardson." English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, 18 (1975): 70-72.

Woolf, Virginia. "Saturday 22 March 1919." The Diary of Virginia Woolf. Volume I: 1915-1919. Ed. Anne Olivier Bell. London: Hogarth Press, 1977: 257-8.
"At once [Katherine Mansfield] flung down her pen & plunged, as if we'd been parted for 10 minutes, into the question of Dorothy Richardson; & so on with the greatest freedom & animation on both sides until I had to catch my train."

Woolf, Virginia. "Friday 28 November 1919." The Diary of Virginia Woolf. Volume 1:1915-1919. Ed. Anne Olivier Bell. London: Hogarth Press, 1977: 313-315.

Katherine Mansfield had just published a rather critical review of VWs Night and Day. 'Today, bearing K.M. in mind, I refused to do Dorothy Richardson for the Supt [Times Literary Supplement]. The truth is that when I looked at it, I felt myself looking for faults; hoping for them. And they would have bent my pen, I know. There must be an instinct of self-preservation at work. If she's good then I'm not."

Woolf, Virginia. "Friday 4th May 1923." [Letter to Janet Case.] A Change of Perspective. The Letters of Virginia Woolf. Volume III: 1923-1928. Ed. Nigel Nicolson. London: Hogarth Press, 1977: 34-35.
"... I must read Miss Dorothy Richardson, having been bribed by very large sums of money to do what of all things I have come to detest - write reviews for the Nation... As a matter of fact, she interests me rather."

Smyers, Virginia L. "Dorothy M. Richardson: Some Uncollected Authors L." The Book Collector, 27.1 (1978): 60-70.

Thorn, Arline R. '"Feminine' Time in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." International Journal of Women's Studies, 1. 2 (1978): 211-219.

Henke, Suzette A. "Male and Female Consciousness in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." Journal of Women's Studies in Literature, 1 (1979): 51-60.

Woolf, Virginia. "16th August 1932." [Letter to Harmon H. Goldstone.] The Sickle Side of the Moon. The Letters of Virginia Woolf. Volume V: 1932-1935. Ed. Nigel Nicolson. London: The Hogarth Press, 1979: 90-91.
"Since writing to you, I see that Miss Dorothy Richardson, the novelist, is engaged upon a study of my books, which should be interesting." A footnote explains that there "is no evidence that DMR even contemplated a study of VWs work, and certainly none was published. Later DMR was invited to review The Years, but declined because she did not like it."

Woolf, Virginia. "Sunday 21st August 1932." [Letter to Ethel Smyth.] The Sickle Side of the Moon. The Letters of Virginia Woolf. Volume V: 1932-1935. Ed. Nigel Nicolson. London: The Hogarth Press, 1979: 96-97.
She persists with her belief that DMR is producing a book about her, putting DMR in the same context as Winifred Holtby and Harmon H. Goldstone, both of whom wanted to produce books about her. Holtby's was published in 1932.

Barrett, Michele and Jean Radford. "Modernism in the 1930s: Dorothy Richardson and Virginia Woolf." 1936: The Sociology of Literature. Vol. 1: The Politics of Modernism. Proc. of Essex Conference on the Sociology of Literature, July 1978, U of Essex. Eds. Francis Barker, et al. 2 vols. Colchester: University of Essex, 1979: n.pag.

Woolf, Virginia. Thursday July 1,1926." The Diary of Virginia Woolf. Volume III: 1925-1930. Ed. Anne Olivier Bell. London: Hogarth Press, 1980: 91-92.
Woolf recounts a meeting with H.G. Wells and his wife. The virtues [Wells] likes are courage & vitality. I said how ghastly! (That is the story of Dorothy Richardson's struggles.) No: nothing is ghastly where there is courage he said. He rambled over her life, amusingly. How she married Odel [sic], a man who makes symbolical drawings - bubbles coming out of a human mouth & turning into womens legs & so on: which is so like life, Wells, said: the heterogeneity - one thing leading to another, & the design so remarkable. But they don't sell. And now Duckworth won't publish any more of her books." The footnote claims that Duckworth's lost money on DMR's novels yet continued to publish them.

Bucher, Urs. Streams of Consciousness: Dorothy Richardson and James Joyce. Willisau, Switzerland: Buchverlag Willisauer Bote, 1981.

Fromm, G.G. "What Are Men to Dorothy Richardson?" Women and Literature, 2 (1982): 168-188.

Reishman, Avrom. "Pilgrimage: The Eternal Autobiographical Moment." Figures of Autobiography: The Language of Self-Writing in Victorian and Modem England. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983: 428-453.
Discusses the autobiographical work of Thomas Carlyle, John Stuart Mill, Cardinal Newman, John Ruskin, Charles Dickens, Charlotte Bronte, George Eliot, Samuel Butler, W.B. Yeats, Siegfried Sassoon, Sean O'Casey, Edwin Muir, D.H. Lawrence, James Joyce, Dorothy Richardson, and Virginia Woolf.

Gillespie, Diane Filby. "Political Aesthetics; Virginia Woolf and Dorothy Richardson." Virginia Woolf: A Feminist Slant. Ed. Jane Marcus. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983: 132-151.

Heath, Stephen. "Writing for Silence: Dorothy Richardson and the Novel." Teaching the Text. Ed. Susanne Kappeler and Norman Bryson. London: Routledge, 1983: 126-147.

Tiessen, Paul. "Feminine Modes of Perception and Expression: Dorothy Richardson and the Cinema." Purdue University Seventh Annual Conference on Film. Fwd. by Marshall Deutelbaum and Thomas P. Adler. West Lafayette: Dept. of Eng., Purdue University, 1983:161-166.

McLaurin, A. '"Siamese Twins': The Verbal and the Visual in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." Trivium, 18 (May 1983): 73-85.

Simon, Irene. "Dorothy Richardson Revisited." Litterae et Lingua: In Honorem Premislavi Mroczkowski. Ed. Jan Nowakowski. Wroclaw: Pol. Akad. Nauk, 1984: 187-192.

DuPlessis, Rachel Blau. "Breaking the Sentence; Breaking the Sequence." Writing Beyond the Ending: narrative Strategies of Twentieth Century Women Writers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984: 31-46.
Discusses the "woman's sentence" and marginalised writers, including DMR.

Staley, Thomas F., ed. Vol. 36: British Novelists. 1890-1929: Modernists. Dictionary of National Biography Ser. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Research, 1985: n.pag.

Knowles, Owen. "Funerals and Elegies: An Obscure Drama of 1924." The Conradian, 11.1 (May 1986): 51-56.
Looks at the influence of Conrad on Dorothy Richardson and Thomas Crosland.

Hanscombe, Gillian, and Virginia L. Smyers. "Dorothy Richardson's life-style of writing." Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940. London: The Women's Press, 1987: 47-62.

Vanacker, Sabine. "Stein, Richardson and H.D.: Women Modernists and Autobiography." Bete Noire, 6 (Winter 1988): 111-123.

Friedman, Ellen G. '"Utterly Other Discourse': The Anticanon of Experimental Women Writers from Dorothy Richardson to Christine Brooke-Rose." Modem Fiction Studies, 34. 3 (Autumn 1988): 353-370.

Kouidis, Virginia M. "Prison into Prism: Emerson's 'Many-Colored Lenses' and the Woman Writer of Early Modernism." he Green American Tradition: Essays and Poems for Sherman Paul. Ed. H. Daniel Peck. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989: 115-134.
Discusses how Emerson's "Experience" influenced Kate Chopin, Dorothy Richardson and Marianne Moore.

Hanscombe, Gillian E. "Dorothy Richardson versus the Novvle [sic]." Breaking the Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction. Ed. Ellen G. Friedman and Miriam Fuchs. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989: 85-98.

Fromm, Gloria. G. "Epistolary Counterpoint: The Letters of Dorothy Richardson and John Cowper Powys", Powys Review, 8. 1 (25), (1990): 29-38.

Kemp, Sandra. '"But How Describe a World Seen without a Self?': Feminism, Fiction and Modernism." Critical Quarterly, 32.1 (Spring 1990): 99-118.
Compares Woolf with Richardson, May Sinclair, and Elizabeth Bowen.

Levy, A. 'Gendered Labor, the Woman Writer and Dorothy Richardson: Middle Class Domestics in Her Novels', Novel: A Forum on Fiction, 25.1 (1990): 29-38.

Schuyler, Sarah. "Double-Dealing Fictions." Genders, 9 (Fall 1990): 75-92.
Compares Richardson's Pointed Roofs and H.D.'s HERmione.

Gillespie, Diane F., introd. & ed. "Dorothy Richardson (1873-1957)." The Gender of Modernism: A Critical Anthology. Ed. Bonnie Kime Scott. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990: 393-399.

Wurzbach, Natascha. "Subjective Presentation of Characters from the Perspective of Miriam's Experience in Dorothy Richardson's Novel Pilgrimage: A Contribution to the Analysis of Constructivist Narrative." Modes of Narrative: Approaches to American. Canadian and British Fiction. Ed. Reingard M. Nischik and Barbara Korte. Wurzburg: Konigshausen & Neumann, 1990: 278-302.

Poresky, Louise A. "The Egoist and the Peacock: Virginia Woolf and Dorothy Richardson Revisited." Virginia Woolf Miscellany, 37 (Fall 1991): 5-6.

Fromm, Gloria G. ed. "Letters from Dorothy Richardson: Selected, with an Introduction." The New Criterion, 10. 8 (Apr. 1992): 10-22.

Egger, Rebecca. "Deaf Ears and Dark Continents: Dorothy Richardson's Cinematic Epistemology." Camera Obscura, 30 (May 1992): 5-33.

DeKoven, Marianne. '"Why James Joyce Was Accepted and I Was Not': Modernist Fiction and Gertrude Stein's Narrative." Studies in Literary Imagination, 25. 2 (Fall, 1992): 23-30.

Compares Stein's narrative technique with that of Joyce, Woolf, and Richardson.

Gevirtz, Susan. "Recreative Delights and Spiritual Exercise: Pantheism as Aesthetic Practice in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." West Coast Line, 26.3 (9), (Winter 1992): 84-94.

Watts, Carol. "Releasing Possibility into Form: Cultural Choice and the Woman Writer." New Feminist Discourses: Essays in Literature. Criticism, and Theory. Ed. Isobel Armstrong. London: Routledge, 1992: n.pag.

Brooker, Peter. "Jean Radford from 'Coming to terms: Dorothy Richardson, Modernism and Women'." Modernism/Postmodernism. Ed. & Introd. Peter Brooker. London & New York: Longman, 1992: 95-106.

Brown, Penny. "Dorothy Richardson: A Voyage to Self-Discovery." The Poison at the Source: The Female Novel of Self-Development in the Early Twentieth Century. London: Macmillan, 1992: 151-213.

Fromm, Gloria G. "Being Old: The Example of Dorothy Richardson." Aging. and Gender in Literature: Studies in Creativity. Ed. & introd. Anne M. Wyatt-Brown and Janice Rossen. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993: 258-270.

Hidalgo, Pilar. "Female Flanerie in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingjeses, 6 (1993): 93-98.

Fromm, Gloria.G. "Richardson & Co." Library Chronicle of the University of Texas, 23.1 (1993): 50-69.

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3.2.4 Articles in Books and Periodicals since 1993

Podnieks, Elizabeth. "The Ultimate Astonisher: Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." Frontiers, 14. 3 (1994): 67-94.

Felber, Lynette. "A Manifesto for Feminine Modernism: Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism. Ed. Lisa Rado. New York: Garland, 1994: 23-39.

Wittman, Livia Kathe. "Desire in Feminist Narrative: Reading Margit Kaffka and Dorothy Richardson." Canadian Review of Comparative Literature, 21. 3 (Sept. 1994): 399-415.

Bluemel, Kristin Burr. "The Feminine Laughter of No Return: James Joyce and Dorothy Richardson." Look Who's Laughing: Gender and Comedy. Ed. Gail Finney. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach, 1994: 161-171.

Felber, Lynette. "Mentors, Protégés, and Lovers - Literary Liaisons and Mentorship Dialogues in Anaïs Nin's Diary and Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." Frontiers, 15. 3 (1995): 167-185.

Fouli, Janet. 'Teiresias and the Insight of Blindness', in Across Boundaries. Tunis: Publications de la Faculté des Lettres de la Manouba, 1995: 213-233.

Thomson, George H. "Dorothy Richardson's Foreword to Pilgrimage." Twentieth Century Literature, 42. 3 (Fall 1996): 344-359.

Totosy de Zepetnek, Steven. "Margit Kaffka and Dorothy Richardson: A Comparison." Hungarian Studies, 11.1 (1996): 77-95.

Rose, Jacqueline. "Dorothy Richardson and the Jew." Between "Race" and Culture: Representations of "the Jew" in English and American Literature. Ed. Bryan Cheyette. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996: 114-28.

Bluemel, Kristin. "Missing Sex in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, 39.1 (1996): 20-38.

Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar, ed. "Dorothy Richardson." The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women: The Traditions in English. 2nd ed. New York & London: W.W. Norton, 1996: 1255-1257.
Includes a biographical piece, together with DMR's short story "Death" (1924), and her article "Women and the Future" (1924).

Bluemel, Kristin. '"Civilization Is Based upon the Stability of Molars': Dorothy Richardson and Imperialist Dentistry." Modernism. Gender, and Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. Ed. and Introd. Lisa Rado. Preface by William E. Cain. New York: Garland, 1997: 301-18.

Kaplan, Carey, rev. Christina Root. "Dorothy Richardson." An Encyclopedia of British Women Writers. Eds. Paul & June Schlueter. 1988. 2nd ed. Chicago & London: St. James Press, 1998 : 533-4.

Winning, Joanne. " 'The Past Is With Me, Seen Anew': Biography's End in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." Writing the Lives of Writers. Eds. Warwick Gould and Thomas F. Staley. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998: 212-223.

Burford, Arianne. "Communities of Silence and Music in Virginia Woolf's The Waves and Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage, Selected papers from Eighth Annual Conference on Virginia Woolf, Saint Louis University, Missouri, June 4-7, 1998." Virginia Woolf and Communities. Eds. Jeanette McVicker, Laura Davis and Georgia Johnston. New York: Pace UP, 1999: 269-275.

Marcus, Laura. "Continuous Performance: Dorothy Richardson." Close-Up, 1927-1933: Cinema and Modernism. Ed. James Donald, Anne Friedberg, and Laura Marcus. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Omichi, Chiho. "Issues of Narrative in Dorothy Richardson’s Pilgrimage", Colloquia (Keio University), 20 (1999): 251−61.

Linett, Maren. "'The wrong material': gender and Jewishness in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage", in Journal of Modern Literature (23:2) 1999-2000, 191-208.

Finn, Howard. ‘Modernism and Suffragette Prison Narratives', in Keywords: A Journal of Cultural Materialism , 3: 2000, (Nottingham: University of Nottingham, 2000), pp.94-108
Note: Looks at the representation of suffragette experience in Clear Horizon with reference to suffragette prison narratives, H.G.Wells's Ann Veronica , May Sinclair's The Tree of Heaven and Dora Marsden's New Freewoman / Egoist critique of suffragette martyrdom.

Thomson, George H. "Dorothy Richardson", English Literature in Transition 43.3 (2000): 347-350.

McCracken, Scott. "Embodying the New Woman: Dorothy Richardson, work and the London café", in Avril Horner and Angela Keane eds. Body Matters: feminism, textuality, corporeality. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000, 58-71.

Mepham, John. "Dorothy Richardson's 'unreadability': graphic style and Narrative Strategy in a Modernist Novel', English Literature in Transition 43.4 (2000): 449-64.

Buchanan, Averill. "Dorothy Miller Richardson: a bibliography 1900-1999", Journal of Modern Literature 24.1 (Fall 2000), 135-60.

Katz, Tamar. 'Pilgrimage: A Woman's Place', in Impressionist Subjects: Gender, Interiority, and Modernist Fiction in England. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000: 138-168.

Harvey, Melinda. "Moving, Movies and the Sublime: Modernity and the Alpine Scene in Dorothy Richardson's Oberland", Colloquy, 4 (2000)

Fouli, Janet, 'Reflections (on Editing Writers' Letters)', in Dualities. Tunis: Publications de la Faculté des Lettres de la Manouba, 2000, pp.149-176.

Fay T. ‘The Cultivation of Incompatibility: Music as a Leitmotif in Dorothy Richardson’s Pilgrimage’, Women’s Studies 29: 2 (2000): 131-147

McCracken, Scott. "From Performance to Public Sphere: the production of modernist masculinities", Textual Practice 15.1 (Spring 2001): 47-65.

Harvey, Melinda. 'From passante to flâneuse: encountering the prostitute in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage', Journal of Urban History, 27 (2001), pp.746-764.

Finn, Howard, ‘Objects of Modernist Description: Dorothy Richardson and the Nouveau Roman', in Paragraph: A Journal of Critical Theory , Vol. 25: 1 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, March 2002), pp.107-124
Looks at the function of description in Pilgrimage as prefiguring controversies surrounding the nouveau roman and Barthes's readings of Robbe-Grillet

Garrity, Jane. "'Neither English nor Civilized':Dorothy Richardson's Spectatrix and the feminine crusade for global intervention', in Step-Daughters of England: British women modernists and the national imaginary. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003: 85-139.

Mepham, John. "Designing the Modernist Text: Dorothy Richardson’s Pilgrimage" in Paul Edwards ed. The Great London Vortex: Modernist Literature and Art. Bath: Sulis Press, 2003.

Frigerio, Francesca. “Musical Aesthetics and Narrative Forms in Dorothy Richardon's Prose”, Textus, XVI, No.1, (2003), 311-28

Frigerio, Francesca. “'A Filmless London': Flânerie and Urban Culture in Dorothy Richardson's Articles for Close Up ”, in The Swarming Streets: Twentieth-Century Literary Representations of London, Rodopi Press, New York 2004, 19-31

Attewell, Nadine."A risky business: going out in the fiction of Virginia Woolf and Dorothy Richardson", in Phillips, Lawrence (ed.), The swarming streets: twentieth-century literary representations of London (Amsterdam; Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 2004). pp.7-18.

Finn, Howard. ‘“In the Quicksands of Disintegrating Faiths”: Dorothy Richardson and the Quakers', in Literature and Theology, Vol.19: 1 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, March 2005), pp.34-46
|Looks at Pilgrimage with reference to Richardson's writings on the Quakers as an attempt to reconcile individualism with collectivism.

Jones, Susan. "Conrad on the borderlands of Modernism: Maurice Greiffenhagen, Dorothy Richardson and the case of Typhoon", in Kaplan, Carola M. Mallios, Peter. White, Andrea. (eds), Conrad in the twenty-first century: contemporary approaches and perspectives (London, New York: Routledge, 2005. pp.195-211.

Parsons, Deborah L. "The 'Passante' as 'Flâneuse' in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage", in Tinkler-Villani, Valeria (ed. and preface), Babylon or New Jerusalem? Perceptions of the City in Literature (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2005), pp.155-67.

Radford, Jean. "Impersonality and the Damned Egotistical Self: Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage", in Reynier, Christine (ed. and introd.); Ganteau, Jean-Michel (ed. and introd.), Impersonality and Emotion in Twentieth-Century British Literature, (Montpellier, France: Université Montpellier III, 2005), pp.87-95.

Omichi, Chiho. "Pilgrimage in London: Dorothy Richardson and the Search for Feminine Space in Science and Socialism" Poetica: An International Journal of Linguistic-Literary Studies, 63 (2005): 63−82.

Rait, Suzanne. "The Rhetoric of Efficiency in Early Modernism", Modernism/Modernity 13.1 (Jan 2006): 89-105.

Nyman, Micki. "Dorothy M. Richardson's 1948 Letter to Lita Hornick", ANQ: a quarterly journal of short articles, notes, and reviews, 19.1 (Winter 2006), 47-58.

Marcus, Laura. "Dorothy Richardson: Pilgrimage", in Bradshaw, David, Dettmar, Kevin J. H. (eds), A companion to Modernist literature and culture ( Oxford: Blackwell, 2006). pp.440-9.

Cucullu, Lois. "Over-eating: Pilgrimage's Food Mania and the Flânerie of Public Foraging", Modernist Cultures 2.1 (Summer 2006): 42-57.

Finn, Howard. ‘Writing lives: Dorothy Richardson, May Sinclair, Gertrude Stein', in The Cambridge Companion to the Modernist Novel, ed. Morag Shiach, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp.191-205
Argues for a connection between extreme narrative experimentation and an autobiographical impulse in modernist women writers.

Randall, Bryony, 'Dailiness in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage', in Modernism, Daily Time and Everyday Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp.58-91
Argues that the temporal category of the day structures Richardson's fiction, but how, at the same time, Richardson strives for a temporality beyond beginnings and endings and beyond means and ends.

Celena E. Kusch, 'Disorienting Modernism: National Boundaries and the Cosmopolis', Journal of Modern Literature, 30. 4 (Summer 2007): 39-60.

Harvey, Melinda. 'Dwelling, Poaching, Dreaming: Housebreaking and Homemaking in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage', in Inside Out: Women Negotiating, Appropriating, Subverting Public and Private Space Teresa Gomez (ed.), (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2008), pp.167-188.

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3.3 Reprints of Books and Articles on Dorothy M. Richardson

Mansfield, Katherine. "Three Women Novelists." [Review of The Tunnel] 1919; "Dragonflies." [Review of Interim] 1920. Novels and Novelists. Ed. J. Middleton Murry. London: Constable, 1930.

Morgan, Louise, Dorothy M. Richardson (pamphlet, reprinted from Everyman, October 22 1931), London: William Jackson, [1931?]

Johnson, R. Brimley. "Dorothy Richardson." Some Contemporary Novelists (Women). London, 1920 New York: Books for Library Press 1967.

McAlmon, Robert, Being Geniuses Together. An Autobiography. 1938. With supplementary chapters by Kay Boyle. New York: Doubleday, 1968.

Prescott, Joseph. "A Preliminary Checklist of the Periodical Publications of Dorothy M. Richardson." Studies in Honor of John Wilcox. 1958. Ed. Alva Dayle Wallace and W.O. Ross. New York: Books for Library Press, 1972. Powys, John Cowper. Dorothy Richardson. 1931. London: Village Press, 1974.

Glikin [Fromm], Gloria. "Through the Novelist's Looking-Glass." 1969. H.G. Wells: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Bernard Bergonzi. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1976: 157-77.

Sinclair, May. "The Novels of Dorothy Richardson." (1918) The Stream-of-Consciousness Technique in the Modern Novel. Ed. Erwin R. Steinberg. New York & London: Kennikat Press, 1979: 91-98.

Blake, Caesar R. Dorothy M. Richardson. 1960. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1980.

Woolf, Virginia. "Romance and the Heart." [Review of Revolving Lights] 1923. The Essays of Virginia Woolf: Volume III: 1919-1924. Ed. Andrew McNeillie. London: Hogarth Press, 1988: 365-368.

Fromm, Gloria G. Dorothy M. Richardson: A Biography. 1977. With Fwd., rev. bibliog. and enlg. index by George H. Thomson. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994.

Friedman, Ellen G. '"Utterly Other Discourse': The Anticanon of Experimental Women Writers from Dorothy Richardson to Christine Brooke-Rose." 1988. "Utterly Other Discourse": The Texts of Christine Brooke-Rose. Ed. & Introd. Ellen G. Friedman. Ed. Richard Martin. Normal, IL: Dalkey Archive, 1995: 214-230.

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3.4. Unpublished Research

Gibbs, Paul Thomas. "A Critical Examination of the Writing of Miss Dorothy M. Richardson (Mrs. Alan Odle) with Respect to Her Revealments of the Inner Self." Diss. U of Nebraska, 1926.

Bakke, Mildred Cecilia. "A Comparison of Dorothy Richardson and Virginia Woolf as Novelists." Diss. U of Minnesota, 1932.

Kelly, Robert G. 'The Premises of Disorganisation: A Study of Literary Form in Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, James Joyce, and Dorothy Richardson." Diss. Stanford U, 1952.

Glikin [Fromm], Gloria H.. "Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage: A Critical Study." Diss. New York U 1961.

Russell, Mary Winifred. 'The Pilgrimage of Dorothy Richardson." Diss. Memorial U of Newfoundland, 1968.

Tudor, Kathleen R. "The Androgynous Mind in W.B. Yeats, D.H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf and Dorothy Richardson." Diss. U of Toronto, 1972.

Tiessen, Paul Gerard. "Cinema: The Medium as Metaphor in the Work of Wyndham Lewis and Dorothy Richardson." Diss. U of Alberta, 1973.

Gillespie, Diane F. "Female Artists as Characters and Creators: The Dual Concern with Feminine Role and Feminine Fiction in the Work of May Sinclair, Dorothy Richardson, and Virginia Woolf." Diss. U of Alberta, 1974.

Haule, James Mark. "The Theme of Isolation in the Fiction of Dorothy M. Richardson, Virginia Woolf, and James Joyce." Diss. Wayne State U, 1974.

Taylor, Nancy McKeon. "Conscious Construction: The Concept of Plot in Five Novels by Women." Diss. U of Chicago, 1977.

Jane Austen, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, DMR, Doris Lessing.

Bangs, Carol Jane. 'The Open Circle: A Critical Study of Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." Diss. U of Oregon, 1977.

Bucher, Urs. "Streams of Consciousness: Dorothy Richardson and James Joyce." Diss. U de Lausanne, 1981.

Wallace, Doris Blumenthal. 'The Fabric of Experience: A Psychological Study of Dorothy M. Richardson's Pilgrimage." Diss. Rutgers U, 1982.

Labovitz, Esther. "The Female 'Bildungsroman' in the Twentieth Century: A Comparative Study: Dorothy Richardson, Simone de Beauvoir, Doris Lessing, Christa Wolf." Diss. New York U, 1982.

Walters, Doris Allene. "Man, Woman and God in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage." Diss. U of Arkansas, 1982.

Aycock, Linnea Marie. "The Design of the Quest: Artistry in Dorothy M. Richardson's Pilgrimage." Diss. U of Iowa, 1983.

Daniels, Julie Kay. 'I am not "literary" Henry': An Edition of Dorothy Miller Richardson's Letters to Henry Savage, MA Thesis, 1984, The Graduate School, Department of English, Pennsylvania State University.

Thompson, Christine K. "Content and Technique in Dorothy M. Richardson's Pilgrimage." Diss. U of Oregon, 1984.

Collins, Carol Elaine. "Pilgrimage: 'A Feminine Equivalent of the Current Masculine Realism'." Diss. U of California, 1986.

Gerrard, N. 'The Fiction of Dorothy Richardson: A Feminist study." Diss. Sheffield U (UK), 1986.

Gillies, M.A. 'The Influence of Henri Bergson on Early Modern Literature.' Diss. U of Oxford (UK), 1986.

Examines Bergson's contributions to the aesthetic thought of the day in the work of Shaw, Conrad, Woolf, Eliot, Richardson and Joyce.

Fouli, Janet, 'Structure and Identity: the Creative Imagination in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage', diplôme de recherches approfondies, University of Tunis, 1986.

Kelly, Theresa. "Pilgrimage and Modernism." Diss. U of York (UK), 1988.

Hoyser, Catherine Elizabeth. "Literary Viragos: Late Victorian and Edwardian Female 'Bildungsroman'." Diss. Indiana U, 1988. Compares Sarah Grand with May Sinclair, Richardson and Antonia White.

Gevirtz, Susan Lynn. "Exorbitant Narrative, Inordinate Epic: 'Feminine Prose' as Transfiguration in the Work of Dorothy Richardson." Diss. U of California, 1990.

Peel, R.W. "Roots and Rootlessness: Images of Deracination in English Prose 1910-1915." Diss. U of Exeter (UK), 1990. Examines literary representations of rootlessness, focusing on texts by Lawrence, Forster, Ford, Bennett, Wells, Tressell, Richardson, Woolf and Joyce.

Wierzbicki-Roach, Geraldine Helen. "The Maternal and Paternal Principle: Gender Configurations and the Dynamics of Creativity in the Novels of George Eliot and Dorothy Richardson." Diss. State U of New York, 1991.

Barratt St. Jacques, Kelly M." 'But Who Was There To Describe Her?': The Manuscripts of Dorothy M. Richardson's Pilgrimage." Diss. U of Ottawa, 1991.

Morris, Martha Neal. "Dorothy Richardson and the Search for Self-Actualisation." Diss. U of Texas, 1992.

Pottie, Lisa Marie. "Dorothy Richardson's Other Writing." Diss. U of Toronto, 1992.

Smith, Lenora Penna. "Revising the Feminine Self in the Fiction of Dorothy Richardson and Virginia Woolf" Diss. Rice U, 1992.

Hill, Mary Lucille. "Remaking the Mother: New Directions for Women in British Narrative, 1910-1930." Diss. U of Delaware, 1993. Compares Richardson with E.M. Forster, V. Woolf and D.H. Lawrence.

Bluemel, Kristin Burr. "Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage Experimenting on the Borders of Modernism." Diss. Rutgers U, 1994.

Vanacker, Sabine A. "The Presence of Women: Modernist Autobiography by Dorothy Richardson, Gertrude Stein and H.D.." Diss. Hull U (UK), 1994.

Stevens, Jill Lisle. "The Grammar of Self-Creation: Feminism, Modernism, and the Linguistic Ontology of Dora Marsden." Diss. Emory U, 1995. Dora Marsden (1882-1960) was the editor of the early works of Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, Rebecca West, Dorothy Richardson, James Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, and William Carlos Williams. This thesis discusses how Marsden acted as a conduit for literary modernism, particularly in her capacity as founder of The Freewoman, The New Freewoman. and The Egoist.

Egger, Rebecca Mary. "Reading by Half-Light: Cinematic Spectatorship in Modernist Women's Writing." Diss. Cornell U, 1995. Discusses H.D.'s and Richardson's journalistic writings on the cinema.

Horrocks, D.M. "Dorothy Richardson to Miriam Henderson: Le Nom du Père to Le Nom de la Mère; Reconstructing Feminine Self-Identity." Diss. York U (UK), 1996.

Winning, Joanne L. "Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage as Archive of the Self." Diss. Birkbeck College, London (UK), 1997.

Gould, Jane. "Early Critics of Dorothy Richardson." Diss. Washington U, 1997.

Law, S.A. J. "'Ecriture spirituelle': Mysticism in the Writing of Evelyn Underhill, May Sinclair, and Dorothy Richardson," Diss. Queen Mary and Westfield College, London (UK), 1997.

Vial, Anne Merriam. "The Life of Narrative: Convention Redefined in the Lives and Fictions of Katherine Mansfield, Dorothy Richardson, Virginia Woolf, and Jean Rhys." Diss. Indiana U, 1997.

Vanhoosier-Carey, Kimberly Ann. "Not Fitting the Framework: Gender Performativity and Narrative Experimentation by British Women Writers, 1880-1930." Diss. U of Texas, 1997. Discusses Olive Shreiner, Sarah Grand, George Egerton, Virginia Woolf, and Dorothy Richardson.

Leong, Lavonne C.E. "The existence, anywhere, of anything at all: the atraditional object in the work of Virginia Woolf and Dorothy Richardson." Diss. U of Oxford, 1998.

Kroll, Jennifer Lee. "The shabby muse and the androgynous aesthetic of English modernist writers Dorothy Richardson, Mary Butts, and Mina Loy". PhD Diss. Auburn University, USA, 1999

Ito, Chiho. "Towards the Luminous Core: Remapping Cultural Territories in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage". Diss. Keio University, Japan, 2002.

Paradisi, Valentina. "Un pellegrinaggio modernista. La vita psichica nella letteratura del primo Novecento" ("A modernist pilgrimage. Psychical life in early Twentieth century Literature"). Diss. Bologna University, Italy, 2006.

Drewery, Claire. ‘Liminal Entities: Transition and the "Space Between" in the Short Fiction of Katherine Mansfield, Dorothy Richardson, May Sinclair and Virginia Woolf'. PhD Diss. University of Hull, 2007.

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3.5. Untranslated Foreign Language Articles and Books

Schirmer, Walter F. Der Englische Roman der Neuesten Zeit. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1923: 51-53, 55, 74-75; index.
Discusses Joyce and DMR (finding the latter timid and modest by comparison) as writers whose work raises the still unanswerable question of whether it is art of unbounded significance or an experiment of literary value only. Describes Pilgrimage as the "autobiography of Dorothy Richardson."

Chevalley, Abel. "Le Roman Anglais: Histoire et Destine." Vient de Paraitre [Paris], July 1925: 385-386.
Discussing one of Baker's volumes of the history of the English novel, Gould's study of the contemporary novel in England (q.v.), and Meredith Stair's The Future of the Novel which contains comments by living novelists, quotes from DMR's contribution to Starr's volume.

Lalou, Rene. Panorama de la Littérature Anglaise Contemporaine. Paris: Kra, 1926: 237; index.
DMR's method is a kind of "symphonie pointilliste," a more extreme form of Virginia Woolf's "impressionism" in following the workings of the feminine consciousness.

Vowinckel, Ernst. Der Englische Roman der Neuesten Zeit und Gegenwart. Stilformen und Entwicklungslinien. Berlin: Herbig, 1926: 181, 184-186; index.
Groups James, DMR, and Joyce as "psychological impressionists," and describes the heroine of Pilgrimage as a "medium."

Fehr, Bernhard. "Dorothy Richardson Und Die Neue Bewusstseinkunst." Beiblatt zur Anglia, 38 (Mar. 1927): 82-96.
Discusses "stream of consciousness" as a development from tradition, citing examples of the process of growth in Meredith and Butler. Describes the established view of DMR's work as containing "keine Fabel." In comparing her with Joyce, concludes that he takes us deeper than we want to be taken whereas DMR makes us feel there are areas she has not opened to us.

Chevalley, Abel. "Les Lettres Anglais." Vient de Paraitre [Paris], Jan. 1928: 55-56.
Cites DMR as "un bel exemple de fidélité à sa conviction artistique," and claims to know nothing more original "en son genre" than her series of novels.

Wild, Friedrich. Die Englische Literatur der Gegenwart seit 1870: Drama und Roman. Wiesbaden, 1928: 287, 291, 338; index.
Speaks of DMR, rather strangely, as one of the novelists in whose work the effects of World War I can be discerned, to the extent indeed that her heroine witnesses the war while she is in Hanover [during the last decade of the 19th century].

Fehr, Bernhard. Die Englische Literatur der Gegenwart und die Kulturfragen Unserer Zeit. Leipzig: Tauchnitz, 1930:48-50.
DMR's books [among which is erroneously listed The Joy of Youth by an American novelist of the same name] cannot be read by the "sleepy" reader, for they demand studious attention. Their "true" theme is "Bindung und Losung, Raum und Zeit," and they can lead, by their very nature, to no conclusion.

Kulemeyer, Gunther. Studien zur Psychologie im Neuen Englischen Roman: Dorothy Richardson und James Joyce. Greifswald: W. Postberg, 1933.
Concentrates on a discussion of Miriam's search for "inward peace."

Hoops, Reinald. Der Einfluss der Psychoanalyse auf der Englische Literatur. Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1934: 151-154.
In a chapter entitled "The Exploration of the Unconscious," discusses Joyce, Woolf, Mansfield, and DMR. Quotes from a letter written by DMR in 1932, claiming that she had written 4 volumes before even hearing of psychoanalysis and that she had made no use of it in her books. Characterises DMR as an objective mediator between the reader and her heroine who, in turn, is an incorrigible romantic. Claims there is no development in the novels.

Neuschaffer, Walter. Dostojewskijs Einfluss auf den Englischen Roman. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1935: 91-97.
The "turning inward" characteristic of Pilgrimage is what "die beiden grossen Russen, Tolstoi und Dostojewskij, immer und immer wieder getan haben." Both Dostojewskij and DMR were primarily interested in "das Studium des menschlichen Geistes," but her knowledge, instead of being intuitive as was his, came from earnest study. Points out certain correspondences in feeling and thought between particular characters in the work of both novelists. Emphasises that DMR developed independently and not in the least "imitatively."

Vowinckel, Ernst. Der Englische Roman Zwischen den Jahrzehnten, 1927-1935. Berlin: Herbig, 1936: 9.
Here groups DMR with Woolf and Mansfield in whose work physical space and time are but parenthetically indicated.

Buck, Eva. Die Fabel in "Pointed Roofs" von Dorothy Richardson. Istanbul: Devlet Basimevi, 1937.
Studies the "story" in Pilgrimage by means of a close examination of Pointed Roofs as it differs from the novels of the 19th century. Pointed Roofs is characterised by a synthesis of "flowing continuity and abrupt conclusions," a blending of the subjective and objective. The book is composed of key "scenes" that are rendered from within the heroine's mind but from which we can also induce the objective situation.

Las Vergnas, Raymond. "Une profonde nuit lectures anglo-americaines." Nouvelles Litteraires, 23 Dec. 1965: 5.
Essay on Flannery O'Connor, Robert Graves, and DMR [occasioned by the translation into French of Pointed Roofs, Mercure de France, 1965]. DMR will probably come to occupy a permanent place among the personalities of the first order in literature: "les createurs, les originaux, les vrais ecrivans."

Humphrey, Robert. La Corriente de la Conciencia en la Novela Moderna: Un Estudio de James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, William Faulkner y Otros. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universitaria, 1969.
Translation of Humphrey's Stream of Consciousness in the Modern Novel (1954).

Martinelli, Simone. Dorothy Miriam Richardson: Chronique d'une Disgrâce. Ville d'Avray: n.p., 1975. Humphrey, Robert. O Fluxo da Consciência: Um Estudo Sobre James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, William Faulkner e Outros. Sao Paulo: Editora McGraw-Hill do Brazil, 1976.
Translation of Humphrey's Stream of Consciousness in the Modern Novel (1954).

Millan, Montserrat. tr. "El peregrinaje de Dorothy Richardson." [Walter Allen's intro. to 1967 reissue of Pilgrimage] Quimera: Revista de Literature, 5 (Mar. 1981): 38-42.
Bronfen, Elisabeth. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzklus 'Pilgrimage'. Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1986.

Schlanger, Judith. "Dorothy Richardson, écrivain célèbre." Poésie [Paris], 37. 2 (1986): 81-87.

Locatelli, C., "La narrativa di Dorothy Richardson: Pilgrimage. Un viaggio verso i luoghi del discorso femminile", Lingua e letteratura, anno 4, numero 7 (1986): 39-5

Siciliani, E., "Secondo le regole di Arianna. Pilgrimage di Dorothy Richardson", Micromegas, anno 16, numero 1/3 (1989): 123-139

Villa, Vittoriana. "Dorothy Richardson e la passione della descrizione", in I linguaggi della passione.Ed. Rutelli e Johnson. Campanotto: Udine, 1993.

Wagner, Keike. Frauendarstellung und Erzahlstruktur im Romanwerk Dorothy Richardson. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1996.

Joubert, Claire. Lire le Féminin: Dorothy Richardson, Katherine Mansfield, Jean Rhys. Paris: Editions Messene, 1997.

Kilian, Eveline. Momente innerweltlicher Transzendenz: Die Augenblickserfahrung in Dorothy Richardson Romanzyklus 'Pilgrimage' und ihr ideengeschichtlicher Kontext. Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1997.

Villa, Vittoriana. "Adventure for readers: Dorothy Richardson e James Joyce", Anglistica, I:UO:, Napoli, 1998.

Villa, Vittoriana. "Alien to each other: Virginia Woolf e Dorothy Richardson", in La tipografia nel salotto. Ed. Palusci. Torino, 1999.

Villa, Vittoriana. "The Blissful State of Death nella narrativa breve di Dorothy Richardson", in Rites of passage. Rubbettino, 2001

Villa, Vittoriana. "A West End Life of Her Own: luoghi londinesi in Pilgrimage", in Londra e le altre. Ed. Di Michele. Napoli: Liguori, 2002

Frigerio, Francesca. "Cultura urbana e scrittura femminile. Rassegna di Studi", Culture, XVII, 2003, 49-69.

Paradisi, Valentina, "L'equivalente femminile del realismo maschile" ("The feminine equivalent of masculine realism"), Argo, IV, 8, 2003, 21-23. Discusses the new model of realism Dorothy Richardson was looking for when she was planning Pilgrimage.

Omichi, Chiho. Japanese translates as: "Dorothy Richardson and Tourism: Reevaluating Oberland", in Women Reading Books: Essays on English Literature and Culture, ed. Keiko Izubuchi (Tokyo: Sairyu-sha, 2006), pp.429-44.

Frigerio, Francesca. “'After the manner of a picture': strategie della percezione nei racconti di Dorothy Richardson”, in Le trame della conoscenza. Percorsi epistemologici nella prosa inglese dalla prima modernità al postmoderno , a cura di Marialuisa Bignami, Unicopli, Milan 2007, 95-112

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3.6. Books and Articles in which Dorothy Richardson is mentioned

Scott, Evelyn. "A Contemporary of the Future." Dial, 69 (Oct. 1920): 353-367.
Discusses Ulysses primarily, with comments on DMR and May Sinclair. Argues that Joyce "preserves all the advantage which inheres in subjective immersion without suffocating us [as DMR does] in the closeness of prolonged immediacy."

Shanks, Edward. "Reflections on the Recent History of the English Novel." London Mercury, 4 (June 1921): 173-183.
Discusses Proust, Joyce, and Woolf as well as DMR, and finds the books of the first three "witty."

Gould, Gerald. The English Novel of To-Day. London: John Castle, 1924:18.
States unequivocally that he "cannot understand" DMR.

Chevalley, Abel. The Modern English Novel. Trans. Ben Ray Redman. New York: Knopf, 1925: 210, 218,246,249-251.
Points admiringly to DMR's originality of form, unsought, unconscious, and yet "most closely related to the forms of painting, music and sculpture that are being developed by her generation." Her books reward the patient, attentive reader with "powerful" and enduring "pictures of human beings and places."

Weygandt, Cornelius. A Century of the English Novel. New York & London: Appleton-Century, 1925: 244, 368, 399, 464, 465-466, 478; index.
Has read one of the novels out of "curiosity," and three others "out of a sense of duty." They are merely "notes for a diary," and that both DMR and Joyce are "little more than symptoms of the time."

Bullett, Gerald. Modern English Fiction. London: Herbert Jenkins, 1926: 86.
Labels DMR and Joyce "eccentricities": they "have carried the [subjective] method as far as it can usefully go."

Drew, Elizabeth. The Modern Novel. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1926:19, 84-88, 256; index.
Grants "originality" to Pilgrimage, but maintains that it consists of nothing more than "raw material," with all the consequences attendant upon rawness: it is crude, unfinished, unwrought.

Hawkins, Ethel Wallace. 'The Stream of Consciousness Novel." Atlantic Monthly, 138 (Sept. 1926): 356-360.
Discusses DMR, Katherine Mansfield, and Virginia Woolf as "three brilliant women writers." DMR's heroine has "a somewhat masculine mentality and a very feminine outfit of delights and repulsions," and her prose consists of "countless conversational styles, each extraordinarily consistent and natural." Claims for Pilgrimage both "wit" and "beauty" as well as "reality."

Gerould, Katherine Fullerton. "Stream of Consciousness." Saturday Review of Literature [New York], 4 (22 Oct. 1927): 233-235.
Tries to trace the "use of the stream of consciousness in fiction" back to James, who "recorded the things that go on in the mind exactly as they go on in the mind," and to Conrad. Both "used mental rhythms instead of rhetorical ones," although Conrad "became constantly more rhetorical as James became less so"; and, unlike the current stream of consciousness writers - Joyce and DMR - they were concerned with beauty. Their work had style; and they were memorable. In the current novels, the author is the patient, and the reader is the psychiatrist or "listening specialist."

Myers, Walter L. The Later Realism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1927: 73-77, 84-85, 119-122, 134-137,149-153, 158-160; index.
Classifies DMR as an "extra" or "advanced" realist - one who told the entire truth about an individual, at all levels, by "supersensuous" or "metaphysical" means. DMR's heroine did not emerge, however, as a visualised character. Her identity, although "incontrovertible," stemmed from the "actuality" of her stream of consciousness; she had no physical existence. Yet the reader felt himself one with her. Myers would not care to repeat the experience with another Miriam Henderson.

Grabo, Carl H. The Technique of the Novel. New York: Scribner's, 1928: 276-281, 291-292, 296-297; index.
DMR's novels are "hard reading" and "interesting in pages or chapters rather than as a whole"; unable to read one of the novels "from cover to cover."

Marble, Annie Russell. A Study of the Modern Novel British and American Since 1900. New York & London: Appleton, 1928: 42, 97-98, 391; index.
Quotes from a letter to her by DMR, explaining that after she had written the early novels, she recognised that they were "part of a general movement towards an intensive consideration of experience, towards an appreciation of the romance of reality."

Beresford, J.D. "Experiment in the Novel." Tradition and Experiment in Present-Day Literature. London: Oxford University Press, 1929: 23-53.
[Address delivered at the City Literary Institute.] Divides traditional fiction into four groups: first, the "neat, completed novel" like Jane Eyre: second, "some version of the life-story" such as David Copperfield: third, "historical and romantic fiction" such as Ivanhoe: fourth, the "adventure story" such as the Odyssey. Then begins to examine "certain instances of experiment [of three kinds: in "matter, method, and manner"] outside...these four groups" with Defoe's A Journal of the Plague Year, for this represents a beginning of "ultra-realism," containing the "germ of the movement towards an ever-increasing naturalism that has now reached and...passed its climax..." Maintains that with DMR "the realistic method can go no further." For it is the essence of her consciously-developed "new" method that the "personality of Miss Richardson the writer, [be] entirely absorbed into that of Miss Richardson the experiencer." Hence as author she cannot explain, in the manner of other novelists, or "come out and join up her account of incidents or emotions..."

Harwood, H.C. "Recent Tendencies of Modern Fiction." Quarterly Review, 252 (Apr. 1929): 321-338.
DMR's experiment "was defeated by something incurably stodgy in her imagination."

Vines, Sherard. Movements in Modern English Poetry and Prose. 1st ed., 1927. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Tokyo: Ohkayama, 1929: 229, 249, 261, 272-275, 276, 279, 349; index.
Deplores the "dry, empty brilliance of Miss Richardson."

Ward, A.C. The Nineteen-Twenties. London: Methuen, 1930: 53-56, 60, 68; index.
DMR "stopped half-way" in the direction in which Joyce went "all the way"; "she failed to follow her method to its logical end of complete incoherence."

Knight, Grant C. The Novel in English. New York: Richard Smith, 1931: 366, 367; index.
Likens DMR's "method" to Virginia Woolf s, and finds that the substance of the work of both is rather elusive.

Holtby, Winifred. Virginia Woolf. London: Wishart, 1932: 107-108, 189.
Remarks about DMR's re-introduction of the stream of consciousness technique which was "not quite new, resembling something in Steme, and something in Proust. It is probable that Mrs Woolf had read Dorothy Richardson; it is certain that she had read Sterne..."

Lovett, Robert M., and Helen Sard Hughes. The History of the Novel in England. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1932: 447-448.
Pairs DMR historically with Proust.

Cunliffe, J.W. English Literature in the Twentieth Century. New York: Macmillan, 1933: 247-248.; index.
Mentions DMR and the "psychological adventures of her heroine" in the course of a discussion of Virginia Woolf who, "though her use of the method [interior monologue] is her own," must have "been acquainted with the work of DMR.

Brewster, Dorothy and Angus Burrell. Modern Fiction. New York: Columbia University Press, 1934: 239, 421 [note].
A comment, within the discussion of Virginia Woolf, that DMR and Proust are "experts in the recording of reveries [and] make us feel that we are constantly in personal and intimate contact with the consciousness of the author..."

Cazamian, Louis. "Modem Times (1660-1932)." A History of English Literature: The Middle Ages and the Renascence (1650-1660) by Emile Legouis. Trans. W.D. Maclnnes and Louis Cazamian. Rev. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1935:1405; index.
Refers to DMR, in a footnote, as a "distinguished representative of the 'stream of consciousness' novel."

Millett, Fred B. Contemporary British Literature. 1st ed., 1921. 2nd rev. and enl. ed. by John M. Manly and Edith Rickert ,1928. 3rd ed. rev. and enl. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1935: 22, 39, 47, 432-33.
DMR is "one of the most quietly influential of the experimentalists" as well as the most "faithful" to the stream of consciousness technique.

Baker, Ernest A. The History of the English Novel. 10 vols. London: Witherby, 1936. Rpt. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1960: x, 356; index.
Refers to the work of DMR, along with that of Joyce and Virginia Woolf, as in the tradition of psychological analysis.

Bates, E. Stuart. Inside Out: An Introduction to Autobiography. 2 vols. Oxford: Blackwell, 1936: Vol. 1: 10-11; Vol. 2: 221; index.
Links DMR with Proust as one of the two writers he knows of who have carried "furthest" the subject of metaphysics in fiction, he "explicitly," and she "implicitly." Describes what they have done - with "subtlety, clarity, receptiveness" - as an "extracting from the mass of human consciousness what is individual to themselves and common to us all."

Bates, E. Stuart. Modem Translation. London: Humphrey Mifford; Oxford University Press, 1936:145-146; index.
Illustrates the "struggles" of a translator with a passage from Deadlock describing the heroine's attempt to translate Andreyev.

Jones, E.B.C. "E.M. Forster and Virginia Woolf." The English Novelists. Ed. Derek Verschoyle. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1936: 282-283.
Notes that DMR's Pointed Roofs in 1915 signalled "the break-up of narrative."

Lawrence, Margaret. We Write As Women. London: Michael Joseph, 1937: 166-70.
Lauds Pilgrimage as a "fundamental" study of "womanhood" and the "most massive production in the twentieth century of a woman."

Muller, Herbert J. Modem Fiction. New York: London: Funk & Wagnalls, 1937: 52, 60, 61, 291, 297, 325, 397; index.
Comments on the "tenuousness" if not "inconsequence" of the "mental experience" which DMR and Virginia Woolf "recreate." [Speaks of Pilgrimage as a finished work of 9 vols., although an 11th vol. had appeared in 1935.]

Pear, T.H. "Personal Relationships." Religion and Contemporary Psychology. Riddell Memorial Lectures. London: Humphrey Mifford, Oxford University Press, 1937: 45.
Mentions DMR as one of those who have "contributed to our understanding" of the way in which the speech of Englishmen identifies them socially.

Chambers Cyclopaedia of English Literature. Ed. David Patrick; rev. and enl. by J. Liddell Geddie and J.C. Smith. 3 vols. 1st ed. 1901. London & Edinburgh: W & R. Chambers, 1938: 720, 850-851; index.
Characterises DMR as the "most thoroughgoing" of the "subjective school."

Daiches, David. The Novel and the Modern World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939; rev. ed. 1960: 20,199; index.
A reference in passing to DMR whose use of the "stream of consciousness method... must have impressed" Virginia Woolf.

Ford, Ford Maddox. The March of Literature. London: Allen & Unwin, 1939: 848; index.
Refers to DMR as an "abominably unknown" contemporary writer.

Muir, Edwin. The Present Age from 1914. New York: Robert M. McBride, 1940: 238-239; index.
Lists DMR's work by titles and dates, and comments on her influential originality. Specifically cites Oberland as a "delightful book" with "considerable poetic power."

Sampson, George. The Concise Cambridge History of English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; New York: Macmillan, 1941: 975; index.
DMR was "much nearer the heart of fiction" than Virginia Woolf, and yet Pilgrimage does not "convince by any creative urgency."

Frierson, William. The English Novel in Transition. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1942: 141, 213, 214, 215, 218, 219, 222, 223, 225; index.

Classifies DMR along with Virginia Woolf and Ford Maddox Ford as one in whose work the impressionist technique merged with stream of consciousness.

Haines, Helen E. What's In A Novel. New York: Columbia University Press, 1942: 11, 25.
In the work of DMR, as in that of Virginia Woolf, D.H. Lawrence, Dos Passes, Faulkner, and others, the "tenets of psychology or psychoanalysis [are] objectified for the common reader."

Wagenknecht, Edward. Cavalcade of the English Novel. New York: Holt, 1943:134, 505-512, 523, 526, 572, 617; index.
Largely points out or discusses what other people (Powys, Scott-James, Katharine Mansfield, J. Middleton Murry) have said or written about DMR. Repeats that Pilgrimage has no "plot" or "design," and asks whether "a pilgrimage whose goal is never defined [is not] too close to life to be very satisfactory as art."

Bentley, Phyllis. Some Observations on the Art of Narrative. New York: Macmillan, 1947: 40-41.
Emphasises the originality of DMR "not only in the substance of fiction but also in its technique." Points out that DMR's "achievements and aims" were in large measure misrepresented because of the absence of "a proper critique of fiction narrative."

Tindall, William York. Forces in Modern British Literature. New York: Knopf, 1947: 290, 293-294, 295, 304, 326, 327, 336; index. Rpd. as Forces in Modern British Literature 1885-1956. New York: Vintage, 1956: 192, 194-196, 201, 210, 219, 226; index.
Pilgrimage "falls into separate fragments. Plot and action have virtually disappeared, character has lost its elegance of shape, and personality has been all but replaced by a series of reactions..."

Chew, Samuel. "The Nineteenth Century and After." A Literary History of England. Ed. Albert C. Baugh. New York: Appleton-Century-Crafts, 1948: 1550, 1566; index.
Thinks it unfortunate that DMR's heroine is not a more interesting person. The novel "has not been widely read, but as an experimenter Miss Richardson has influenced other novelists," such as May Sinclair and Virginia Woolf.

Hyman, Stanley Edgar. The Armed Vision. New York: Knopf, 1948; rev. ed. 1955: 42; index.
Astonished to find that in a statement made by Waldo Frank, the names of DMR and James Joyce were linked in praise, for this showed a "dangerous want of taste" - to yoke a "hack or fool "with a great writer." [The connection was rooted in a fact of literary history.]

Sinclair, Frederick. "A Poet's World in Woburn Walk." St. Pancras Journal, 2 (Dec. 1948): 124-127.
Historical sketch. Describes the original Woburn Buildings near Euston Road where Yeats and DMR once lived.

Beach, Joseph Warren. English Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. New York: Oxford University Press, 1950: 607. Rpt. New York: Collier Books, 1962: 235-236.
Places DMR with Virginia Woolf, D.H. Lawrence, and Katherine Mansfield in "a movement of reaction against the heavy materiality of realists like Arnold Bennett.

Bowling, Lawrence Edward. "What is the Stream of Consciousness Technique?" PMLA, 65 (June 1950): 333-345.
Essay on methods of modern fiction. Defines the stream of consciousness technique as "that narrative method by which the author attempts to give a direct quotation of the mind - not merely of the language area but of the whole consciousness," and cites the beginning of Honeycomb as an example of "internal analysis" rather than stream of consciousness, for "the author is definitely present." The "internal analysis and the stream of consciousness technique are fundamentally different: the one summarises, the other dramatises', the one is abstract, the other is concrete."

Drinkwater, John. ed. The Outline of Literature. London: Newnes, 1950; rev. by Horace Shipp, 1957: 754.
"... in 1915 the idea of photographing a heroine's thought-stream was startlingly new...[DMR] deserves the credit due to a pioneer. It is no fault of hers that some of her imitators have reduced the method to a tedious absurdity."

Brewster, Dorothy and Angus Burrell. Modern World Fiction. Ames, Iowa: Littlefield, Adams, 1951: 183-184; index.
Mentions DMR's work as one example of the "brilliant experimentation... with the stream of consciousness..." during this century.

Brome, Vincent. H.G. Wells: A Biography. London: Longmans, Green, 1951: 67-69, 77-79,117-122; index.
Recognises the accuracy of the portrait of Wells in Pilgrimage.

Church, Richard. The Growth of the English Novel. London: Methuen, 1951: 38,186-187; index.
DMR is one of the "women novelists who explore deeper and deeper into the emotional machinery of their own sex," indeed one who "has made almost a scientific practice of this activity." In her "remarkable novel about women, a man is virtually an "intruder."

Isaacs, J. An Assessment of Twentieth-Century Literature. London: Secker & Warburg, 1951: 88,89, 96,97.
Labels DMR's technique as not only "impressionism" but also the "typically romantic technique [found] in Scott and in Jane Austen."

Neill, S. Diana. A Short History of the English Novel. London: Jarrolds, 1951: 271, 272, 283-284, 285; index.
Discusses DMR along with Joyce and Virginia Woolf, as one of the "innovators in literary technique," as well as one who used the "stream of consciousness technique" in its "purest form." Wonders whether the heroine of Pilgrimage is "sufficiently interesting to justify so many volumes." [With respect to the facts of the publication of the novels, inaccurate.]

Trevelyan, G.M. "Changing Values." Listener (London). 47 (17 Jan. 1952): 88.
An account of the address which Trevelyan gave to the English Association. Illustrating the change in values of each generation, Trevelyan cited the "Bloomsbury group" as beginning such an alteration, and the generation after the First World War as crystallising this "changing outlook." The latter group provided readers of Joyce and T.S. Eliot, readers whose "taste in fiction had first been met by Dorothy Richardson."

Hart-Davis, Rupert. Hugh Walpole: A Biography. New York: Macmillan, 1952: 90-91, 92; index.
Contains a description by DMR of Walpole as he was in St. Ives in May 1912.

Mendilow, A.A. Time and the Novel. London: Peter Neville, 1952: 50, 80, 83, 84, 105, 113,154, 215; index.
Summarises cogently that "Fielding selected in length and thus could open up long perspectives in a linear time; Dos Passos in breadth, by giving spatial cross-sections during a very restricted period of time; and Dorothy Richardson in depth, vertically, by sinking a deep and narrow shaft into the present moment of feeling and sensation, the moment that contains within itself the whole of the past."

Fraser, G.S. The Modern Writer and His World. New York: Criterion Books, 1953; London: A. Deutsch, 1955: 25; index.
Groups DMR with Katherine Mansfield and Virginia Woolf as a later impressionist whose sense of style is stronger than her sense of structure.

Kettle, Arnold. An Introduction to the English Novel, 2 vols. London: Hutchinson, 1953. Vol. II (Henry James to the Present Day): 102,109; index.
General comment grouping DMR with Proust, Joyce, and Virginia Woolf.

Allen, Walter. The English Novel. London: Phoenix, 1954: 44, 412, 413, 415-16, 417-18, 428; index.
Speaks of DMR as one of the post-World War 1 novelists and the first "deliberately to employ the [stream of consciousness] technique." Although Pilgrimage is a "remarkable achievement," and the early volumes are "enchantingly" fresh, the novel as a whole is formless, and the experience of the single central feminine character very limited in range.

Humphrey, Robert. Stream of Consciousness in the Modern Novel. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1954: v, 8, 9-12, 34-35, 37, 48-49, 59, 64, 76, 77, 78-81, 83, 87, 111-112,113.
Consistently and traditionally ranks DMR the least interesting and gifted of the experimentalists: she "deserves more credit as a pioneer in novelistic method than as a successful creator of fiction."

Snow, C.P. "Storytellers for the Atomic Age." New York Times Book Review 30 Jan 1955: 1, 28.
Leading article. The "moment-by-moment novel" of "total-recall novel" represents "the most hopeless cul-de-sac in the novel's history," for in this form of art "only breathes freely when it has its roots in society." Insists that "sensibility is not enough."

Scott-James, R.A. Fifty Years of English Literature 1900-1950: With a Postscript 1951-1955. 1st ed., 1951. London: Longmans, Green, 1956:137-141, 143,149, 153,163; index.
The chief value of Pilgrimage lay in its revelation of the feminine point of view; indeed because DMR was that point of view, one could not expect form and synthesis from her.

Gregory, Horace. "Reunion at Bloomsbury." New York Times Book Review (10 Feb. 1957): 7.
[Review of Clive Bell's Old Friends] mentions Virginia Woolf's work, "compared with the writings of Dorothy Richardson...[as] less durable and too often wilful and shrill."

Prescott, Joseph. "Dorothy Miller Richardson," Encyclopaedia Britannica 19 (1958).
Establishes the exact date and place of DMR's birth, and summarises her career.

Stevenson, Lionel. The English Novel: A Panorama. London: Constable, 1960: 461-463, 532.

Snow, C.P. "Science, Politics, and the Novelist." Kenyon Review, 23 (Winter 1961): 1-17.
Discusses the narrowing of the range of the novel in the 20th century, so dramatically apparent with the introduction of stream of consciousness and its "first full-fledged English example," Pointed Roofs.

Bryher. The Heart to Artemis. A Writer's Memoirs. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962: 3, 15, 28-29,113, 168, 236-41; index.
Warmly praises Pilgrimage, the novel she has "read and reread throughout [her] life," and which she has always told her friends "abroad" they must read "if they want to know what England was like between 1890 and 1914." Describes her first meeting with DMR who, in answer to a "fan-letter", invited her to tea in St. John's Wood in 1923, and their subsequent friendship.

Guiguet, Jean. Virginia Woolf and Her Works. Trans. Jean Stewart, London: Hogarth Press, (Paris 1963). 1965: 22, 40, 41, 73, 175, 241, 243, 246, 372, 373, 420, 460.

McAlmon, Robert. McAlmon and the Lost Generation. A Self-Portrait. Ed. Robert E. Knoll. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1962: 4, 241.
Mere mention of DMR in passing.

Swinnerton, Frank. Figures in the Foreground: Literary Reminiscences 1917-40. London: Hutchinson, 1963: 167-168.
Describes how a group of writers rallied to write to Stanley Baldwin, the Prime Minister, to get DMR a Civil List pension because she was really poverty-stricken. Acknowledges the novelty and originality of her technique, and how her books "have, historically, another importance; they show how, as early as 1915, one writer at least was determined to break away from convention."

Hopkinson, Diana. The Incense Tree. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968: 59-60.
Autobiography, containing a brief description of a meeting with DMR and her husband in Cornwall. [Vivid and evocative, but not entirely in accord with other available evidence.]

Bell, Quentin. Virginia Woolf: A Biography. London: Pimlico, (1972) 1996: 73. Seymour-Smith, Martin. Funk and Wagnalls Guide to Modem World Literature. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1973:271.
"She was certainly a pioneer of the stream-of-consciousness...method; but in an ultra-realist rather than a phenomenological direction." [Gives wrong birthdate and offers an unbalanced highly subjective summary.]

Ford, Hugh. Published in Paris: American and British Writer. Printers, and Publishers in Paris. 1920- 1939. London: Garnstone Press, 1975: 55, 61.

Cohn, Dorrit. Transparent Minds: Narrative Modes for Presenting Consciousness in Fiction. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978: 12.

Olsen, Tillie. Silences. New York: Delacorte Press/Seymour Lawrence, 1978: 10, 16, 31, 37, 40, 227, 235-236.

Stubbs, Patricia. Women and Fiction: Feminism and the Novel. 1880-1920. Brighton: Harvester Press, 1979: 230.

Friedman, Susan Stanford. Psyche, Reborn: The Emergence of H.D.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981: 6, 67.

Glendinning, Victoria. Edith Sitwell: A Unicorn Among Lions, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1981: 115.

Fitch, Noel Riley. Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties and Thirties. London: Souvenir Press, (1983) 1984: 86.

Ford, Boris, ed. From James to Eliot. Vol. 7 in The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. London: Penguin Books, 1983: 53, 86, 567-8.

Gordon, Lyndall. Virginia Woolf: A Writer's Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984: 194, 195.

Zwerdling, Alex. Virginia Woolf and the Real World. Los Angeles & London: University of California Press, 1986:53,227,245.

Faulkner, Peter, ed. A Modernist Reader: Modernism in .England 1910-1930. London: Batsford, 1986: Introd.: 25; 'Surgery for the Novel - or a Bomb?': 134, 135, 137.

Bjarhovde, Gerd. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900. Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1987: ix, 1, 11, 16, 115, 130-131,146.

Todd, Janet. Feminist Literary History: A Defence. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1988: 20, 71.

Friedman, Susan Stanford. Penelope's Web: Gender. Modernity. H.D.'s Fictionv. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990: ix, 4, 372 n42, 372-3 n49, 395 n14.

Magnusson, Magnus, gen. ed. "Richardson, Dorothy M (Miller)." vChambers Biographical Dictionary. 5th ed. Edinburgh & New York: Chambers, 1990:1238.

Bradbury, Malcolm and James McFarlane. eds. Modernism: A Guide to European Literature 1890-1930. Rev. ed. London: Penguin Books, (1976); 1991: 178, 456, 633.

Gillespie, Diane F. ed. The Multiple Muses of Virginia Woolf. Columbia & London: University of Missouri Press, 1993: 38, 115, 158 n16, 177,177 n39.

Richetti, John. ed. The Columbia History of the British Novel. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994: 744; index.
"While Woolf and Joyce, as well as Lewis, represent the high point of radical experimentation with form in the period, they were not the only ones to explore new methods. Two lesser-known writers - Dorothy Richardson and Ivy Compton-Burnett - also attempted, less successfully, to devise new forms for their work. Relentlessly pursuing the inner life of her protagonist, Marian [sic], through her ten-volume Pilgrimage begun in 1915, Richardson demonstrates that the stream-of-consciousness technique in itself guarantees neither freshness nor insight. The new possibilities of the narrative method bog down in a wealth of undifferentiated impressions and thoughts. Marian's subjective reality is finally not interesting enough to sustain the reader. Richardson's implacable interiority..."

Bradbury, Malcolm. The Modern British Novel. London: Penguin Books, 1994: 85, 138, 182-3, 190.

Nicholls, Peter. Modernisms: A Literary Guide. London: Macmillan, 1995: 204-205; 206.

Lee, Hermione. Virginia Woolf. London: Chatto & Windus, 1996: 377, 385, 386, 390, 391, 392, 407.

Willison, lan, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik. eds. Modernist Writers and the Marketplace. London: Macmillan, 1996: 131, 132, 147.

Everdell, William R. The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-Century Thought. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1997: 285, 301, 302, 324, 342.

Matz, Jesse. The Modern Novel: A Short Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.

Jonathan Coe, 'My Literary Love Affair', Guardian, Saturday 6 October 2007. Comments on Richardson's influence on his own work: 'The rhythms of Richardon's prose are quite unique.'

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